Anatomy of an Orchid Flower

In: Science

Submitted By cchi
Words 633
Pages 3
Anatomy of an Orchid Flower
Despite the astonishing diversity found in the thousands of wild species and man-made hybrids, orchid flowers show an unmistakable family resemblance. Orchid flowers are generally bilaterally symmetrical—only a single imaginary line can be drawn through a flower to create a mirror image.
A typical orchid flower has three sepals (the outer segments that protect the bud before the flower opens), alternating with three petals. The petals and sepals may be similar or not, showy or inconspicuous.
The middle petal, which is always opposite the column, is usually quite different from the others. Called the lip or labellum, it comes in a variety of shapes, depending on the species, and can be wavy or fringed or covered with hairs or other structures. The labellum often serves as a landing pad and attractant for insect pollinators.
University of Chicago Press Journals. (2009, December 28). Orchids' sexual trickery explained: Leads to more efficient pollinating system. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/12/091217183442.htm new study reveals the reason why orchids use sexual trickery to lure insect pollinators. The study, published in the January issue of The American Naturalist, finds that sexual deception in orchids leads to a more efficient pollinating system.
While most flowering plants reward pollinators with tasty nectar, many orchid species turn to trickery. Some use what's called food deception. They produce flowers that look or smell like they offer food, but offer no edible reward. Other orchids use sexual deception. They produce flowers that look or smell like female insects, usually bees or wasps. Males are drawn to the sexy flowers and attempt to mate with it. In doing so, they accidentally collect pollen on their bodies, which fertilizes the next orchid they visit.
From an evolutionary…...

Similar Documents

Bumblee Orchid

...The Bumblebee Orchid (Ophrys bombyliflora) is native to the Mediterranean area. It is a very small plant, reaching up to 35 centimeters in height. It prefers to grow in calcareous soil in abandoned pastures and forest clearings mixed in with shrubs and brush. All members of the Ophrys genus are insect pollinated plants, but the Bumblebee Orchid also reproduces by root tubers, making it a very successful and dominant species among the group. Ophrys orchids are dormant underground bulbous tubers during the summer and develop leaves during the fall and a new tuber starts to grow until spring when the flowering stem grows. Each stem will grow 2 to 12 flowers that are unique from other orchids by their colors, shapes, and ingenuity the use to attract insects. Each Ophrys species has its own insect that it depends on for pollination. Bumblebee Orchids are completely dependent upon bumblebees (Eucera algira). Each flower has a lip that tricks the insect visually and by mimicking female pheromones that attract the males. The Bumblebee Orchid has 2 to 3 flowers that look and smell so much like female bumble bees, that the chemical signals stimulate the bees sexually. The smell, look, and feel of the lip of the flowers mimic female bumblebees so well, that the males attempt to copulate with the flower and pollen sacs stick to its head and abdomen. Bumblebee Orchid pollination is a precise process that requires the pollen sacs to shift into a position that allows it to stick to......

Words: 301 - Pages: 2

The Flowers

...The Flowers The story takes place in the South of the USA. An indication of that is that Myop’s family is famers; lots of people were farmers in the south. Another indication is that they are black and probably poor since they get water from a spring. There are two settings in the story; the farm and the woods. Myop the girl in the story lives on the farm. The farm is where she feels comfortable and can live in her childish life full of innocent. At the farm there is a henhouse and a pigpen which she runs around and makes a beat with a knobby stick at the fence and sticking randomly to the chickens she like. As it said in the text: “She was ten, and nothing existed for her but her song…” That sentence describes the girl perfectly. She is a black ten year old girl who lives in a world with no fear and with no such thing as racism. The other setting of the story is the woods. If she had followed the path she used to walk with her mother nothing would had happened. But when she made her own path she stepped out of her own peaceful world. The further she moves in to the woods the gloomier it becomes. She has defiantly stepped out of her peaceful world when she stepped smack into the cranium of a dead man. The flowers have a big symbolic value in the story. They represent her innocence and ignorant world as a child. When she steps on the skull she begins to wonder but she still hasn’t found out that her childhood is ruined. Then she takes pink rose and see’s the......

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

The Flowers

...The Flowers “Growing up is losing some illusions, in order to acquire others” This was once said by Virginia Woolf. As a child you grow up having your own idea of what life is - one can even say that you live in an illusion. The child have no experiences to build his/hers world view on. When the child then grows up she is learning how the world actually works and the illusions shatters. This is a theme in the short story “The Flowers” (1976) from the collection titled “In Love and Trouble: Stories of Black Women” by Alice Walken. Based on what I know about Alice Walken and her work, I assume Myop is a young girl from a dark colored family in the south, which world limits to the wood behind her family’s house. In the beginning of the story Myop is a happy child with a child’s innocence and illusions. The atmosphere in the beginning is also very calm and peaceful. All these changes when Myop steps on a dead body in the wood. “.. and she reached down quickly, unafraid, to free herself” (p. 107 l. 33) As you see in this quote Myop is not afraid of the situation, but looks at it with a child’s eyes of interest, and trying to make her own experiences. She doesn’t know yet that she has to be afraid. The calmness is then broken and the sentiment changes. Something is wrong and when Myop wants to go back to the peacefulness of the morning, she can’t. The calmness she knows and is pursuing is gone, as Myop has left her childhood. The point of no return would be when Myop steps upon......

Words: 575 - Pages: 3

Flower

...FLOWER AMONG FLOWERS Flower among flowers, soft bud swooning, that the wind moves to a gentle crooning. Wind of heaven, wind of love, you who gladden all you espy; you who smile And will not sigh, candour and fragrance from above; you who perhaps Came down to earth to bring the lonely solace and mirth, and to be a joy For the heart to capture. They say that into your dawn you bear the immaculate soul A prisoner —bound with the ties of passion and rapture? They say you spread Good everywhere like the spring which fills the air with joy and flowers In April time. They say you brighten the soul that mourns when dark clouds gather, And that without thorns blossom the roses in your clime. If then, like a fairy, You enhance the joy of those on whom you glance with the magic charm God gave to you; oh, spare me an hour of your cheer, a single day of your career, that the breast may savour the bliss it knew! The 48-line verse talks of a romantic love for a girl, which is not surprising because Rizal had a lot of girlfriends. It seemed as if this was a personal poem because of the use of the word “I”. The metaphor of a flower is obviously a girl who is more beautiful than all the girls in her group that’s why it’s entitled Flower among Flowers. She is young like a “soft bud”. And when Rizal used onomatopoeia with the wind “crooning”, he was talking of how the flower makes the things it touches, the wind in particular, sing of love. The girl is perfect: beautiful and......

Words: 1283 - Pages: 6

Flower Production

...PROFITABILITY OF FLOWER PRODUCTION AND MARKETING This study examines the production and profitability of some selected flowers in comparison with their competing crops. Identified some problems of flower marketing which are, * Unavailability of sufficient flowers according to demand at right time * Lack of adequate and suitable transportation system. Measures to overcome these problems, * Establishment of mode storage facilities, * Improvement of cultivation practices of flower for the whole year * Arrangement of contract marketing. The flower traders face various problems: * Institutional credit should be made available to the intermediaries on easyterms and at a lower rate of interest. * Marketing loss should be reduced by improving storage, handling andprocessing facilities. Government should arrange training for flowers traderson post harvesting handling and storage of flowers on scientific basis. * Market facilities, such as tin shed, drainage, etc. should beimproved Based on the findings of the study, some recommendations for facilitating flower production and developing an improved marketing system in Bangladesh may be feasible if government and non- government agencies should take a concentrated effort - * to enhance flower production by train-up the flower-farmers, * to provide appropriate production assistance and storage facility, * to provide support farmers in marketing of the produced flowers, *......

Words: 874 - Pages: 4

Flowers

...more you pick, the more flowers they produce! The large seeds of sweet peas are easy to handle, but if sowing sounds complicated then buy them as sweet pea plug plants! A sunny spot, a supportive fence, and plenty of water is all these climbers need to produce your own 'home grown' cut flowers. Just keep an eye out for troublesome slugs and snails - they love the young shoots. nigella 3. Nigella (Love in A Mist) Such easy plants to grow. Simply scatter nigella seed across a patch of bare soil and let it look after itself! With jewel-like flowers and delicate ferny leaves, nigella is much tougher than it looks. As the flowers fade, this pretty plant will set seed for the following year. What could be simpler! aquilegia 4. Aquilegia Aquilegias are easy plants to grow from seeds and will come back year after year. Start aquilegias in small pots for transplanting later on. Once they are established they will happily set seed so you will never be short of new plants! They tolerate almost any conditions in sun or semi-shade, and their pretty bonnet-like flowers come in almost every imaginable colour combination. californian poppy 5. Eschscholzia (Californian Poppy) If you are not a fan of watering then Eschscholzia would make easy to grow plants for your garden. These colourful little annuals thrive in poor, dry soil and full sun so they are perfect for filling forgotten corners of the garden. Simply scatter them where you want them to flower and let them take care......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Anatomy

...Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of animals and their parts; it is also referred to as zootomy to separate it from human anatomy. In some of its facets, anatomy is related to embryology and comparative anatomy, which itself is closely related to evolutionary biology and phylogeny.[1] Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine. The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animal’s body parts using unaided eyesight. Gross anatomy also includes the branch of superficial anatomy. Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology and also in the study of cells. The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human body. Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from the examination of animals by dissection of carcases and cadavers (corpses) to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-ray, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. Contents 1 Definition 2 Animal tissues 2.1 Connective tissue 2.2 Epithelium 2.3 Muscle tissue 2.4 Nervous tissue 3 Vertebrate anatomy 3.1 Fish anatomy 3.2 Amphibian anatomy 3.3 Reptile anatomy 3.4 Bird anatomy 3.5......

Words: 652 - Pages: 3

Wild Orchid

...Book report: Wild Orchid Wild Orchid is a novel about a girl named Taylor Jane Simon. She’s an 18 year old girl with Asperger’s Syndrome which is a form of autism. When she finds out that she has to move to Prince Albert National Park for the summer with her mom, she freaks out because she hates change. The vacation has been planned so Taylor’s mom can spend time with her current boyfriend, Danny. Her summer doesn’t end up being so bad after all, Taylor gets her first job in a pizza restaurant that her mom’s boyfriend Danny runs. Taylor would rather stay at home in Saskatoon, but since she suffers from autism, she can’t stay on her own. Taylor’s mom encourages her to find out the park’s possibilities on her own. For Taylor, whose life has always been limited because of her sickness, this means meeting new people and being more social which she’s never done before on her own. There is also a possibility of a boyfriend but Taylor is still not quite sure how to find one and doesn’t know what that may involve. Taylor sets goals and makes a daily routine that includes going to the nature center and walking on the beach 7 times. Taylor becomes very interested in nature and plants. She ends up getting a job at the nature center, where she is respected for her knowledge and very good memory. By the end of the novel she goes out of her comfort zone by living away from home, getting her first job, and making new friends gave her more confidence. She feels better and less scared...

Words: 293 - Pages: 2

Flower

...AléGryan's Flower Life is full of ups and downs. One spends too much time and energy focuses on the negative that he or she cannot see the positive. I learned this valuable lesson myself. I realize the chaos follows when one wanders aimlessly through life. I am building my future using my flower. My flower has a stem, six petals, and a core. My flower is centered on my past, present and future. It is based on knowledge, values, people, location, working conditions, and salary. Each petal represents my goals based on my experiences. My flower grows as I grow. My flower is a road map of where I came from and where I plan to go. It is my past, present, and future. I cannot reach for the stars without recognizing my past and present. For me, my past and present are the beginnings of who I am. I am thirty years old, an African-American, female who is also a soon to be single mother. All of the labels that describe me are considered a roadblock in life. However, I see them as stepping stones toward my goals. I know the value of hard work because I saw my mother achieve it. She was a single mother who worked hard and finished college with me in a stroller. I never realized the sacrifice she made until recently. She did not let labels hold her back and neither will I. My mother is part of the stem on my flower. For without her story, I would not have a story. It is easy to take the safe path and just hope for the best without putting forth any effort. ......

Words: 1200 - Pages: 5

Flowers

...SISTER FLOWERS Questions for close reading (pgs.144-145) 1. Maya Angelou states her dominant impression in sentences 1 and 2, first paragraph. “For nearly a year [after I was raped], I sopped around the house, the store, the school and the church, like an old biscuit, dirty and inedible. Then I met, or rather got to know, the lady who threw me my first life line.” Angelou is letting the readers know that this story is about using something or someone as a inspiration to overcome your hardships and conquer your fears. 2. Angelou admires Mrs. Flowers because, to Angelou, she represented something elegant and new, proven in the sentence “She appealed to me because she was like people I had never met personally”. 3. Maya Angelou was ashamed of her mother in the presence of Mrs. Flowers because her mother did not speak proper English and was not as poised as Mrs. Flowers. Mrs. Flowers and momma behaved as if they were sisters, only separated by their dialect. 4. The lessons in living taught to Maya by Mrs. Flowers, were the importance of understanding people and the way they speak to one another. In layman’s terms, do not judge a book by its cover. I believe that this influenced Angelou in a way that made her want to become a writer, and she wanted to be able to communicate with various groups of people through her writings. 5. The definition of Taut is stretched or pulled tight; not slack. The definition of Voile is soft sheer fabric, usually......

Words: 647 - Pages: 3

The Flower

...Two beautiful orange flowers nestled between vast amounts of leaves across from each other. Having a simple elegant structure with a curvaceous and flawless shape, the flower seems to be on cloud 9. This artificial flower, made in China has traveled across many oceans to reach its final destination. Starting out as a long roll of cloth, the flower has gone through many processes to become what it is. The process of choosing what color the flower will be, determining its size, along with what will accompany it are just few steps which will determine what the flower will look like after the manufacturing process. The flower, which is seeking to bring happiness and joy to the lives of whoever buys it is halfway there of accomplishing its goal. With its rich orange color, it reminds us of a calm and peaceful time where everything was perfect. The warm color shows how it can unite us in a time of chaos and confusion. Even though this flower doesn’t have an aroma, it seems like it has showered the room with cleanliness. Having a positive nature to beauty, the flower makes us think how to be happier and improve ourselves in this cold and bitter world. Only if this flower was a living organism, it could be compared to Mother Teresa. Bringing peace and tranquility to the everyday stress and hectic life we all live. Being fragile has not stopped the flower from bringing two people together for ages, but has made relationships more pleasant and sensual. The flower has brought......

Words: 394 - Pages: 2

The Flowers

...”The Flowers” When you grow from child to adult, you realize that life is not as easy as you might have thought. What is underneath all the perfect flowers? How does growing from child to adult affect you? “The Flowers” is a short story by Alice Walker, in which you read about a little girl whose name is Myop. As she’s out picking flowers, she discovers something which will change her childhood and her view on life. By analyzing and interpreting this short story this essay will put focus on Myop’s development and her view on life after her discovery.  “The Flowers” is a story of childhood innocent. Myop is a 10 years old girl. She only sees the beauty of life. She likes the nature, and flowers. The story is described as a beautiful summer day. The story takes place in the woods behind Myop’s house. Myop’s mood develops from a good to a bad mood. I can see that in the beginning “she felt light and good in the warm sun”. When you feel light and good warm sun, its symbols of something good. First Myop is picking flowers in the wood, she is happy. When she later gets further in to the woods “she finds it not as pleasant as her usual haunts”. But then she steps into a man’s face. She realizes that he is dead. She picks up a pink rose and put her bundle of flowers down. But after she had experienced with the innocent man, she had a bad mood and all the fun was over. The text ends with “the summer was over”, and it’s like Myop is growing up and could not have fun anymore....

Words: 741 - Pages: 3

Charcoal as Orchid Fertilizer

...fertilizer for orchids and help boost the growth of the orchid plant and increase the bloom of its flowers. The investigator had selected this topic due to an interest in the different properties of charcoal and how it can help nature in many ways. The topic was chosen due to the fact that the investigator’s family has a garden with orchids that are even several decades old. The investigator then decided to do experiment with charcoal and orchids to see if charcoal could help the orchid’s flowering. There have been other investigators who have done similar studies and have proved that charcoal can act as an effective fertilizer. Others have proven that charcoal can act as a fertilizer for plants and an enhancer for soil but this investigator would like to know if it can be used specifically for orchids and if it would be the best way to boost an orchid’s bloom and growth. This project can contribute to the attainment of a better quality of life since it is beneficial to the environment because charcoal is organic, affordable and may be used by everyone, and can be used to enhance soil quality, fight global warming and make plants grow better. This can study can fight global warming since it is natural and organic and it will not release chemicals into the environment which damage the land and our air, specifically the ozone layer. Statement of the Problem It is unknown if charcoal can act as a main fertilizer and have an effect on the growth of the orchids......

Words: 1576 - Pages: 7

Flower

...Duration of Engagement in Flower Cultivation by Respondents 4 Findings 4.1 Kinds of Flowers Grown 4.2 Method of Cultivation: Source of Seeds/ Cuttings 4.3 Pesticide Use 4.4 Source of Pesticides 4.5 Application of pesticides 4.6 Knowledge of Effects of Pesticides 4.7 Precautionary Measures Taken by Pesticide Users 4.8 Effects on Labourers and Farmer’s Health 4.9 Use of Water 4.10 Women’s Involvement 4.11 Profits from Flowers 4.12 Marketing of Flowers 4.13 Use of Flowers 5 Discussion References 5 7 7 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 16 16 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 22 23 23 China Part I. The Flower Industry in China 1. 2. 3. 4. Present Situation Strengths Areas for Improvement Recommended Measures 25 25 25 27 27 27 29 29 References Annexes 3 Part II. The Flower Industry in Yunnan Province 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Present Situation Major Constraints and Challenges in Flower Industry Development Strengths and Potentials Development Framework for Yunnan’s Flower Industry Measures to Develop Yunnan’s Flower Industry 31 31 36 36 37 38 39 40 References Annexes Philippines 1 Overview: Floriculture Industry in the Philippines 2 Floriculture in the Cordillera Region 2.1 Cut Flower Production 2.2 The Marketing System 2.3 Public and Private Institutions Involved in the Cut Flower Industry 2.4 Government Assistance and Intervention 2.5 The Role of La Trinidad Municipal Agriculture Office (MAO) 3 Case Studies: Socio-Economic Profiles of Cut Flower Growers 3.1 Small......

Words: 30965 - Pages: 124

Orchids

...Orchids Orchids, a member of the Orchidaceae family, are well known for being one of the most exotic and elegant tropical flowers. They represent one of the most highly evolved families of monocotyledons with over 880 genera and over 22,000 species ("Orchid care tips," 2005-2012, para. 2). Orchids exhibit extreme diversity in size, shape and color of their flowers. Historically, orchids originated with the early Greeks, where they were believed to serve a mythical and medicinal purpose. It wasn’t until the 19th century that orchids gained attention for their unique beauty and useful properties. Orchid use in the cut flower industry continues to flourish and their long lasting beauty yield a relatively high price in the international market. They are largely grown overseas, however local growers in warm regions have mastered the production of smaller quantities of orchids. For the consumer, the care of a cut flower orchid is critical to its longevity. Although orchids have a reputation for being difficult to care for, most people don’t realize that the care is very basic. The ancient Greeks believed that the orchid was very sexual in nature. The term orchid came from the word “orkhis”, which literally means testicle in Greek. This name was assigned due to the unique testicle-like shape of the orchid root. In Greek mythology, Orchis was the son of a nymph and a satyr. When Orchis attempted to rape a priestess he was subsequently torn apart by wild beasts, and then......

Words: 939 - Pages: 4