Byzantine Empire (as Written by Thomas Garguillo)

In: Historical Events

Submitted By iadewole4
Words 1042
Pages 5
| | |

Byzantine Empire
330 C.E. to 1453 C.E.

--- Only in the eastern Mediterranean did a classical empire survive. The eastern half of the Roman empire, known as the Byzantine empire, withstood the various problems that brought down other classical societies and survived for almost a millennium after the collapse of the western Roman empire in the fifth century C.E.

--- The Byzantine empire was a political and economic powerhouse of the postclassical era. Until the twelfth century, Byzantine authority dominated the wealthy and productive eastern Mediterranean region. The Byzantine empire also deeply influenced the historical development of the Slavic peoples of eastern Europe and Russia. Byzantine missionaries and diplomats introduced writing, Christianity, codified law, and sophisticated political organization into lands settled by Slavic peoples. Because Byzantine political, economic, and cultural influence stretched so far, historians often refer to it as the “Byzantine commonwealth.” Just as Greek and Roman initiative brought Mediterranean lands into a larger integrated society, Byzantine policies led to the formation of a large, multicultural zone of trade, communication and interaction.

--- The Byzantine empire takes its name from Byzantion - latinized as
Byzantium – a modest market town and fishing village that occupied a site of enormous strategic significance. Situated on a defensible peninsula, Byzantion had the potential to control the strait of water leading from the Black Sea, the
Aegean Sea, and the Mediterranean. Apart from its maritime significance,
Byzantion also offered convenient access to the rich lands of Anatolia, southwestern Asia, and southeastern Europe. Because of its…...

Similar Documents

Byzantine Institutions

...Question: Explain the development and the nature of the Byzantine institutions (church and state), social and urban life, and cultural achievements? Answer: Byzantine art is the term commonly used to describe the artistic products of the Eastern Roman Empire from about the 5th century until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. (The Roman Empire during this period is conventionally known as the Byzantine Empire.) The term can also be used for the art of states which were contemporary with the Byzantine Empire and shared a common culture with it, without actually being part of it, such as Bulgaria, Serbia or Russia, and also Venice, which had close ties to the Byzantine Empire despite being in other respects part of western European culture. It can also be used for the art of peoples of the former Byzantine Empire under the rule of the Ottoman Empire after 1453. In some respects the Byzantine artistic tradition has continued in Greece, Russia and other Eastern Orthodox countries to the present day. The finest work, the most elegant, and the most accomplished technically, was, naturally enough, associated with the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, which was the very hub of the civilized world from the foundation of the city as capital around 330 till its conquest by the Turks in 1453. But there were other great centers too. In Rome, Milan, Ravenna, and elsewhere in the West works of the greatest importance that were in no way provincial were executed in the early years of......

Words: 3391 - Pages: 14

Cultural Heavyweights Dar Al-Islam and the Byzantine Empire.

...WHAP Cultural Heavyweights Dar Al-Islam and The Byzantine Empire. The Muslim World and The Byzantine Empire were two of the most powerful and most-linked-together civilizations during the Middle Ages due mostly to their cultural achievements, religious values, and economic activities. The Byzantine Empire and Muslim World had very similar and different cultural achievements due to their very unique styles but also sharing each other’s ideas as well. The Muslim world’s cultural achievements focused more on the development and interaction of cultures while the Byzantine Empire’s cultural achievements revolved more around the ideology of state building and the arts, but although there are some obvious differences between the two civilizations, their cultural achievements were very similar in many ways. Although the two civilizations practiced religions that shared some similarities, they did have religious oppositions as well and differed in many of their beliefs. Contrary to their very different religious values, they had very similar economic structures by trading on the silk roads and having very strong banking systems. The Muslim World and Byzantine Empire do share some similarities when it comes to economic activities and cultural achievements, they vary and contrast greatly when it comes to each of the civilization’s religious values. The Dar Al-Islam and the Byzantine Empire had quite different religious values, although some similarities......

Words: 812 - Pages: 4

Byzantine Music Culture

...ByZantine Music culture Body What is known today as Byzantine music has been developed and refined for over two millennia. With its earliest roots going back to Pythagoras' philosophy on the division of chords, its latest and final revision took place in 1881 in the city of Istanbul; the city still referred to by the practitioners of this complex art by its more ancient name of Constantinople. For the purposes of this essay, the name Constantinople will refer to the city up to and including the present day. To provide for a clearer understanding of the theory of Byzantine music, the process of the development of Byzantine music as it is known today will be divided into two eras. We will call these two eras pre-Byzantine, and Byzantine periods of musical development. The pre-Byzantine part of the essay will cover developments made before the foundation of Constantinople. This period includes everything before c. 330 C.E. The Byzantine period will include all of the advancements made after the founding of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Every refinement made up to the present day, the most important dates being the simplification of the notation in 1821 by John Koukouzeles and the great council of 1881, will be included in this period, but not, unfortunately in the essay. Although there is a very significant part played by notational theory on the development of Byzantine music theory and Hymnography, the scope of this essay does not allow for us to delve......

Words: 1241 - Pages: 5

Roman Empire book transactions. Moneylenders can be found who will accept payment in one Greek city and arrange for credit in another, avoiding the need for the customer to transport or transfer large numbers of coins. Rome, with its genius for administration, adopts and regularizes the banking practices of Greece. By the 2nd century AD a debt can officially be discharged by paying the appropriate sum into a bank, and public notaries are appointed to register such transactions. The collapse of trade after the fall of the Roman empire makes bankers less necessary than before, and their demise is hastened by the hostility of the Christian church to the charging of interest. Usury comes to seem morally offensive. One anonymous medieval author declares vividly that 'a usurer is a bawd to his own money bags, taking a fee that they may engender together'. Rome The Roman Empire inherited the spirit of capitalism from Greece (Parker).During the time of the Empire, public deposits gradually ceased to be held in temples, and instead were held in private depositories. The earliest recorded evidence showing banking practices is given by one source as during 325 BC. On account of being in debt, the Plebians were required to borrow money. At that time newly appointed quinqueviri mensarii were commissioned to provide services to those that had security to provide in exchange for money from the public treasury.[121] Another source has the shops of banking of Ancient Rome firstly opening......

Words: 1547 - Pages: 7

An Analysis on Thomas Gray’s ‘an Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard’

...Analysis on Thomas Gray’s ‘An Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard’ The idea of death has always been an infamous concept. It has fascinated a lot of scholars, scientists, and artists alike, producing thousands of different theories and ideas trying to answer the mystery that surrounds such final and daunting thought. Death slowly crept up to the living and successfully immortalized itself in the form of ink on paper. As the field of literature ironically gave life to such pieces concerning death, one literary piece stood out because of its distinct qualities. Thomas Gray’s An Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard exudes the exceptionality and the thought worth of a position in the canon of English Literature. Thomas Gray was born on 1716 in London, the only child out of eight who survived through adulthood. He studied in Eton College, where he met three of his most treasured friends: Horace Walpole, Thomas Ashton, and Richard West, all three of them coming from a wealthy family. After studying, he went on a Grand Tour of Europe, but had an unfortunate falling out with Walpole before the tour ended. Shortly after, the 24 year-old West died of tuberculosis (Koster.) These events were said to be the inspiration for the majority of Gray’s poems. After being a fellow for several universities for several years, Gray proceeded to live in Stoke Poges, where he stayed for the rest of his life until his death at the age of fifty-five. The Elegy The Elegy Written in a......

Words: 1575 - Pages: 7

Byzantine Empire Economy

...“Why Byzantine economy remained one of the most powerful in Europe through Early Middle Ages?” The Byzantine cconomy was one of the largest systems throughout Europe and the Mediterannean for many centuries. Both local and international trade were of huge importance for the Byzantine Empire. Lower class, including traders, depended on the upper class. Their need of the foreign goods in order to stay in Local trade was much less popular. Throughout the fourth and sixth centuries, long-distance trade was operating successfully, until the plague appeared, which killed around one-third of the citizens in the Byzantine Empire, and ruined the trade networks. The Byzantine economy had recovered in the tenth century, and Italian merchants contributed to its steady growth in the Mediteranian through the tenth and eleventh centuries (Katz 27-39). To begin, the decades of instability as well as foreign invasions mostly by Germanic tribes, led to an establishment of a new military, political, and administrative framework under Diocletian (284-305), and Constantine I, which also led to a new economic power in Byzantine and Constantinopole. From 395 to 476, the Empire was in a big crisis until the Germans left the territory. Emperor Justinian I provided the growth of the economy, but also the growth period ended with the “Justinian Plague” that broke out in Egypt in 542, and reduced the population in all provinces of the empire. The “Justinian Plague” continued until the 8th century. At...

Words: 2055 - Pages: 9

Roman Empire

...The Roman Empire The Roman Empire was one of the strongest empires in all of mankind. The Roman Empire has such a rich history and shows how power and strategic tactics can run an empire efficiently. The Roman Empire was characterized by an autocratic form of government which meant the top leaders made all the important decisions. They had a large territorial area around the Mediterranean which went into present day Europe, Africa, and Asia. Rome history starts at the time it was know as Rome Republic and was ran by royal Rome. There Imperium was in command and are represented by consuls and the senate and assembly. Rome in their Republic they started their conquest as they fought Carthage in three Punic Wars. Carthage main advantage was their navy and Hannibal was leading Carthage to victory over Rome and take over. But Rome had its own power in Scipio Africanus and he ended Hannibals victory run and they were able to hold Carthage back and became the the power of the west with a great strategic army. The fall of the Republic started with Julius Caesar he mid wife of the Roman Empire and was more of a dictator figure. Julius Caesar was part of the first triumvirate of the new Roman Empire. He was ulitmately betrayed at the end of his term. Octavian, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, would take over after Caesars untimely end. He lead Rome to its second triumvirate and was the first empire of Rome. After Emperor Augustus took over and was a very low profile ruler......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4


...Byzantine Leonardo Lins Professor: AFSHIN HAFIZI Strayer University Byzantine Art and Architecture Byzantine art was developed in the Eastern Roman Empire between 330AD and 1453AD. It was the first ever Christian empire its capital was Constantinople, now known as Istanbul. This period produced remarkable works in history, fine poetry, much religious prose, and the visual arts flourished too. The term, however, refers more to a style associated with Byzantium than to its area. Byzantine art was a religious art, the orthodox subjects were chosen according to traditional themes and theological meanings. Christianity had an immense influence on Byzantine art. Most of the artists remained anonymous working as servants of the court or belonged to religious orders. Panel painting, frescoes, Ivory carvings, Byzantine crosses, illuminations, metal work and mosaic decoration attest to their skill. Byzantine art was intended as religious lessons, they were presented clearly and simply in order to be easily learned. The Byzantine era lasted for an immense time period so it is difficult to make concrete generalizations about this diverse period. Byzantine art can clearly be seen in direct relation to foreign ideas and radically different styles, both architectural and artistic. Byzantine artist continued that which his predecessor had taught him, demonstrating the style of a particular region or school. This uniform made it challenging for artists to demonstrate their......

Words: 557 - Pages: 3

The Byzantine Empire

...The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire is the eastern Greek portion of the Roman Empire, sometimes termed the Later or Eastern Roman Empire. The Byzantine Greeks presented themselves as Romans and their Empire as the Roman Empire. They perceived themselves as the prolongation of the Roman Empire and on no account utilized the term "Byzantine" to present themselves (Frucht, 2004). For the reason of administration, Diocletian (who ruled about 284-305) segmented the dominion of the empire among four emperors. He administered the eastern part of the empire (McMeans & Teacher Created Resources, 2010). The Empire was reunified in 324 when, conquered all his foes, and became the dominant authority of the entire empire. The Byzantine Empire may then be dated to Constantine's development of a second capital; that he modelled on Rome, at Byzantium (Frucht, 2004). So from the establishment of this city as a second Rome, the division of east from west was developed, and the east soon came out as the prevailing half. In 330, Constantine the Great relocated the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople. There were a few reasons for that; one was that the city was a splendid defensive position. Secondly it approached the wealthy Eastern cities of the Empire and was close to the Military outposts edge with the Empire's principal rival, Persia (Frucht, 2004). Constantine also endorsed the initiation of Christianity from Constantinople. The eastern section of the Empire talked Greek...

Words: 522 - Pages: 3

Byzantine Mosaics Sources

... - Source C Byzantine paintings and icons are often recognized for their relatively two-dimensional representations. The emphasis of the artists was not on realism but on forms that could be easily identified to transmit stories from the Bible and Christian history. In this style, painted figures often look stiff and awkward. In some paintings, the subjects appear to be weightless, floating in golden ether. Typically rich in color, Byzantine artists often used deep gold, blues and greens. The use of gold expressed the glory and richness of the faith. Bright colors helped make figures in paintings and mosaics identifiable from a distance. In secular art, those colors helped to distinguish the ranks of the subjects being depicted. For many Byzantine pieces, those colors have withstood centuries of exposure and remain vibrant today. Mosaic traditions in the Middle East begin in late Antiquity, and one of the largest and best preserved Roman mosaics is the now well-travelled Lod Mosaic found not that long ago in Israel. From the fifth century on, from Syria to Egypt mosaics were used to decorate both religious and secular, public buildings. The tradition comes to an end in the eighth century, after the fall of the Umayyad dynasty in 750: churches fell into disrepair and were later destroyed. The only surviving examples are...

Words: 1327 - Pages: 6

Byzantine Diplomacy

...Byzantine diplomacy drew its neighbors into a network of international and interstate relations, controlled by the empire itself. [5] This process revolved around treaty making. Byzantine historian Evangelos Chrysos postulates a three-layered process at work: 1) the new ruler was welcomed into the family of kings, 2) there was an assimilation of Byzantine social attitudes and values, 3) as a formalization of the second layer of the process, there were laws. [6] In order to drive this process, the Byzantines availed themselves of a number of mostly diplomatic practices. For example, embassies to Constantinople would often stay on for years. A member of other royal houses would routinely be requested to stay in Constantinople, not only as a potential hostage, but also as a useful pawn in case political conditions where he came from changed. Another key practice was to overwhelm visitors by sumptuous displays. Constantinople's riches served the state's diplomatic purposes as a means of propaganda, and as a way to impress foreigners. [7] When Liutprand of Cremona was sent as an ambassador to the Byzantine capital, he was overwhelmed by the imperial residence, the luxurious meals, and acrobatic entertainment. Special care was taken to stimulate as many of the senses in as high degree as possible: brightly lit things to see, terrifying sounds, tasty food; even the diplomatic set-piece of having barbarians standing around the throne wearing their native gear....

Words: 463 - Pages: 2

Ummayad Empire

...allegiance to Islam 633 Muslim conquests (Futuhat) begin. 633-42 Muslim armies take the Fertile Crescent (Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia), North African coast, parts of Persian and Byzantine Empires c. 650 Caliph Uthman has the Qur'an written down. 656 Uthman is murdered; Ali becomes fourth caliph. 657 Battle of Siffin. Mu'awiya, governor of Syria, claims the caliphate. 661 Ali is murdered; Mu'awiya becomes caliph. Beginning of Umayyad Caliphate (661-750). 680 Death of Husayn marks beginning of the Shi'at Ali ("party of Ali") or Shi'a sect. 685-705 Reign of Abd al-Malik. Centralization of administration - Arabic becomes official written language (instead of Greek and Persian) and Arab coinage is established. late 600s Ruling classes in East and West Africa convert to Islam. 747 rebellion defeats the Umayyads. 750 Abu l'Abbas becomes caliph in Iraq 754 Baghdad (Madinat al-Salam, "city of peace") becomes the new capital of the Abbasid empire. 755 Abd ar-Rahman founds an Umayyad Dynasty in Cordoba, Spain. 765 Division within Shi'ites - majority are the modern Imamiyya (Twelvers) who co-exist with Abbasid caliphs; minority are more extreme Isma'iliyaa (Seveners). 786-809 Reign of Harun ar-Rashid, best known through the stories of The Thousand and One Nights. 800s Written collections of Hadith (sayings of the Prophet) are compiled. Sicily comes under Muslim rule. 928 Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman III declares himself caliph in Cordoba. 945 The Buyids (Persian)......

Words: 382 - Pages: 2

‘Despite Its Apparent Strength, the Byzantine Empire Suffered from Some Fundamental Weaknesses That Eventually Caused Disaster’. Discuss with Reference to the Period 900-1081.

...structural weaknesses or other factors that caused the collapse of the Byzantine Empire we must first establish whether its strength was actual of merely perceived strength. Being one of the leading empires in the world, to have survived it must have had real strengths. As it relied heavily on diplomacy instead of fighting in times of military threat it had to have skilful diplomats and efficient administrators. However it is more likely that the increase in military and political strength of its neighbours, such as the Persians, Turks and Arabs was the reason for its eventual collapse, and not its own weaknesses. Although one could look on the contrasting strength of opposing nations, and the lack of progression of Byzantine as a structural weakness of the Empire, therefore contradicting the argument. In the 11th century Byzantine began to degenerate steeply due to a few major factors, its military, economics and the European renaissance. Individually these problems may not have been so costly, and perhaps would have been solvable. However they all occurred in the 11th century, referred to as the 11th century crisis, culminating in an accelerated decline in strength and finally collapse. The Byzantine army was huge, in the 4th century numbering 645,000 soldiers. However although this clearly shows military strength, for the soldiers to be paid tax was very high. As Warren Treadgold states in his book Byzantine and its Army, 284-1081, “In an economy that consisted chiefly......

Words: 1841 - Pages: 8

Empire The Roman Empire spoke Latin and this language became a prominent part of the culture until the 1200 A.D. For years and years to come Latin language dominated the western world and were every the Roman Empire ruled this was the primary language that was used. When the Roman Empire began to fall the Latin language faded away and the countries began to use their vernacular language. These languages would one day be known as Portuguese, French, Spanish, Italian, and etc. The vernacular languages would also be considered as the large family of contemporary “Romance” languages (Matthews, 2011). Before the twelfth century, Latin was the major language that was used by writers. The developments of Latin were influenced by other native languages which included Celtic languages, Greek, and Etruscan (University of Calgary, 1996). Latin was continuously developed because there were significant differences in each period. These differences included those in the literary written language, and also in the differences in the spoken language of the educated and the less educated populace. Between 500 – 100 after the Empire, the peninsula was also using the vernacular language in the form of popular celebrations of religious festivals, improvisational troupes of actors, story-tellers, etc (Matthews, 2011). However none of the literature was written down and handed down to the generations. However, although none of the literature was written down, there was......

Words: 390 - Pages: 2

Ottoman Empire

...military successes of the Ottoman-Turk? In creating a third (non-Arab) Islamic Empire Modern Middle East 31 May 2012 Introduction The Ottoman success was largely due to the more advanced weaponry systems they had, because of the better equipment they had improved their battlefield success greatly. The Ottomans ruled a large area and let non-Muslims practiced their own religions long as they paid their taxes and obeyed the law. Summary The Ottoman Empire was a success because the military is made up of two distinct groups, the kapti kallari forces and the locals. The ghazis, which were the Turkish warriors, were largely responsible for the conquest of Anatolia. The first twelve sultans enjoyed long reigns, this was necessary because instability at the top is sure to force decline in any empire. Body One of the reasons was because of nationalism and a notion that a state and ethnic nation are very similar; early on the Ottoman Empire was defined by his ruler, by its faith, as well as its military, all acting in sync. The empire emerged from a number of Turkey smaller states in Anatolia that was left behind from the devastating Mongol Victory at Kose Dagh (1243) over the Sultanate, Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-66). The reign of this great king represented the acme of Ottoman power. This was one of the finest states in the Western World, a universal empire unmatched in size, wealth and military power. Obviously, other......

Words: 767 - Pages: 4