Coral

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Las Colonias de coral, son genéticamente más diversas de lo que se estimaba
Fecha: 10 de Junio del 2015
Los organismos coralinos son genéticamente más diversos de lo que se estimaba. Esta, es la conclusión propuesta por biólogos de la Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, que han llevado a cabo estudios de la variabilidad genética, en colonias individuales de distintas especies de corales.
Maximilian Schweinsberg miembro de Department of Animal Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity comenta, que de cualquier manera se debe esperar que esta variabilidad compense las pérdidas de corales debido al cambio climático.
Schweinsberg menciona que la inestabilidad climática y los cambios en el ecosistema afectan en gran medida a las colonias coralinas. En colaboraciones junto a otros investigadores, se publicó este artículo en la revista Molecular Ecology.
La base de esta adaptación es la diversidad genética. Estas colonias individuales, se conforman por millones de pólipos. Hasta la fecha, se ha asumido que los corales se originan a través de la proliferación de una larva y son, por tanto, genéticamente idénticos. En comunidades aisladas, los investigadores encontraron pólipos genéticamente diferentes. Sin embargo, es incierta la frecuencia en que ocurre este fenómeno.
La variabilidad genética puede ser causada por dos procesos: mutaciones genéticas espontaneas en secciones de colonias individuales coralinas, o por distintas uniones de corales durante su etapa de desarrollo. En el primer caso, las colonias coralinas resultantes, son denominadas mosaicos., En el segundo caso, se les nombra quimeras. Biólogos de Bochum han estudiado 222 colonias de coral de cinco especies diferentes. En cada especie, se encontraron genéticamente distintos tipos de pólipos. La frecuencia de este fenómeno varía entre 24 y 47 por ciento. La mayoría de los corales genéticamente variables, resultaron ser…...

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