Cost of Crime

In: Social Issues

Submitted By briankiamba
Words 2444
Pages 10
COST OF CRIME

[First-Name Last-Name]

[Course number]
[Instructor’s Name]
May 25, 2016
Determining the cost of crime to the society is a vital task that many have tried to decipher. A quick research unveils many crime costing literature that employ different approaches to approximate the losses due to crimes committed and the cost of crime prevention. Statistics from the U.S. department of Justice show that billions of dollars are used in crime prevention and related legal activities in addition to the billions of dollars that are incurred in economic losses. Studies have shown the cost of crime in developing countries to be approximately ten percent (10%) of their GDP, a figure which agrees with findings that the US spends $1 to $2 trillion annually on crime prevention.
McCollister and colleagues categorizes the cost of crime to the society into four groups: victim cost, costs incurred in the criminal justice system, crime career costs and intangible costs. Victim costs are the losses that the victim faces such as loss or damage of property, hospital bills and loss of money. The criminal justice system costs include the money the government spends on crime prevention such as police protection and correctional programs while crime career cost is the opportunity cost that results from the choice to engage in crime rather than sticking to the straight and narrow. Intangible costs, unlike the other three crime cost categories, don’t have a particular cost. They include physical pain and suffering, psychological trauma due to a crime or the loss of life of a loved one and their estimation is usually left to jury awards. They are usually dollar amounts required to make the victim whole again, what Ludwig calls “willingness to accept”.
The Cost of Crime
The cost of crime can be evaluated by viewing its effects on various disciplines.
Take the…...

Similar Documents

Crime

...Crime is something that impacts everyone, whether directly as a victim or indirectly through societal and economic costs. From the early 1960s, in the United States, criminological research resulted from individual efforts. The reliance on individual investigators to conduct and oftentimes fund their own research agenda was primarily a function of a lack of funding sources devoted to issues surrounding criminology and criminal justice. However, research in criminal justice has dramatically increased. The period between 1960 and 1980, saw the enormous increase in efforts in the federal government to initiate research projects that were designed to understand the extent of criminal behavior, including the etiology of criminal behavior, as well as the reaction of the criminal justice system to criminal behavior. Although still under supported financially, funded research efforts during this time period gathered much information that helped set the stage for the continuation and expansion of criminological research efforts. Since 1980, there has been a substantial increase in the financial resources afforded to criminological research, which has led to a large number of activities within criminology and criminal justice system. Looking at the social factors of criminals, it is possible to see these factors could influence criminal decision and the way they handle situations. Mary Bell was an eleven- year-old girl, who lived in England in a poverty stricken area, known......

Words: 2538 - Pages: 11

Crime

...Crime is the result of: | | Steffanie Washington | 10/11/2012 | Crime is the result of both, society and an individual’s decision to commit a crime. It is surely the case that we cannot address crime in only one way. People make conscious choices when engaging in criminal behavior.  Yet, these choices are, to some extent, driven by sociological reality and conditions that surround individuals. I don't believe that all crime is committed in a premeditated manner. I think that some may be at will, or spontaneously. I do also believe that crime can be part of who we are as people. I think that a lot of criminals start off with a small crime and end up in situations to commit bigger crimes. Don’t get me wrong, I do believe we are all responsible for our own actions but I don’t think people just wake up one day and decide to commit a crime. There is something that triggers that person, whether it’s their up bring, poverty, bullying, neglect, abuse, peer pressure, drugs, media, and so much more. When someone is taught to hate, have no remorse for anyone, grow up around crime and drugs, that’s all they know. I feel that some criminals have not been taught the difference between ‘right and wrong.’ There are a lot of people that are given many opportunities in life, but what about those who have not been given the same opportunities. There are a lot of people that are not given a chance in life and I believe that can lead someone to commit a crime. I still believe......

Words: 318 - Pages: 2

Crime

... four banks were attacked in an hour-and-a-half; one daytime raid took place just steps from the Lincoln Center in downtown Manhattan. The week before, San Diego had seen four bank holdups in a single day. Criminologists wondered if the holiday spree was the first sign of a looming crime wave in recession-battered America. Take an uptick in poverty and economic misery, toss in budget cuts to police departments across the country, and that should be a blueprint for chaos—right? Except, as it turns out, the exact opposite occurred. According to FBI statistics, crime rates went down across the board in 2009. Way down. Murder, rape, robbery, assault, auto theft—plummeted, one and all. Then, this week, the FBI released preliminary data for the first six months of 2010, and again the same pattern emerged. Violent crimes and property crimes alike have been falling in every region of the country. What gives? Have experts just completely misunderstood what causes people to commit crimes?   There's certainly no shortage of theories for why crime rates have gone down over the past two years. The simplest is that crime just isn’t closely related to economic conditions. Consider, after all, the two big crime epidemics in the twentieth century—the first took root in the late 1960s, during a period of healthy growth; the other came during the economic doldrums of the late ‘80s and early ‘90s. The only constant here, it seems, is that both outbreaks were fueled by a major expansion of......

Words: 10363 - Pages: 42

Crime

...class. You need to make reasonable attempt at this assessment every week to pass the course. If you fail to do it your final mark will be withheld. 1. Essay Question: After more than a century of criminological theory, why does crime still exist? Illustrate your answer by drawing on at least two theories studied thus far in the semester and consider how they define crime and what policy ( rulem strategy, procedure) responses (replies) they advocate (support). What are the strengths and weaknesses of these theories and why related policy responses failed to rid society ( culture of crime? Use Australian or international examples to support your arguments. a. Thesis Statement: * Crime attributes an individual to a particularly undesirable group. It is based upon an event; some sort of wrong - doing or deviance from the norm which results in social, physical, mental, property or financial harm. * Theories come into play and provide a perspective and embody certain assumptions. * * There is no longer a singular definition of crime, there are multiple views and opinions yet non stand as a concrete definition. * Classical Theory * Positivism Of particular interest is the classical approach to crime and the idea of positivism nad individualist behaviour. b. tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion. c. is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells......

Words: 1572 - Pages: 7

Crime

...are used to measure crime in the United States? The U.S. Department of Justice administers two statistical programs to measure the magnitude, nature, and impact of crime in the Nation: the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). Each of these programs produces valuable information about aspects of the Nation’s crime problem. Because the UCR and NCVS programs are conducted for different purposes, use different methods, and focus on somewhat different aspects of crime, the information they produce together provides a more comprehensive panorama of the Nation’s crime problem than either could produce alone. What are crime rates, arrest rates, clearance rates, and recidivism rates? Recidivism is measured by criminal acts that resulted in the rearrested, reconviction, or return to prison with or without a new sentence during a three-year period following the prisoner's release. Crime Rates several methods for measuring crime exist, including household surveys, hospital or insurance records, and compilations by police and similar law enforcement agencies. Typically official crime statistics are the latter, but some offences are likely to go unreported to the police. Public surveys are sometimes conducted to estimate the amount of crime not reported to police. Such surveys are usually more reliable for assessing trends. Public surveys rarely encompass all crime, rarely procure statistics useful for local crime prevention,......

Words: 329 - Pages: 2

Crime

...Crime and poverty have been problems and subjects of social discussion for as long as civilization has been in existence. Even today, society still struggles with the question of how to fix and reduce both of these problems. As the decades go by and more and more statistics are collected, we can see a pattern of poverty and crime rates. What many hope to see in these graphs and statistics is a reduction of both poverty and crime. Every year billions of dollars are spent on fighting crime and helping those who find their selves struggling through poverty. Will the effort spent on reducing crime through better security make the impact on criminal activity we hope it does, or should we work on bringing those who commit crimes to a higher standard of living? Many would argue that the two are linked together and that poverty is the number one promoter and cause of criminal activity, and that adults and children who grow up living in poverty are more likely to be apart of this criminal activity. Should the government spent more money on fighting crime, or more on those who live in poverty and that are more likely to commit the crimes? The answer to that is simple; we should spend more on bringing those in poverty, out of it. Facts have shown that adults and children who live and are raised in poverty stricken areas are more likely to commit crime. As poverty levels fluctuate throughout history, so do crime levels. There are many aspects that come into play for those......

Words: 751 - Pages: 4

Crime

... Crime One of the best theories best known for methodological approaches would be a rational choice. Individuals are a unit of analysis at which to study society. Society is not made up of a large number of individuals; it can contain organizations and groups. Any general sociological theory is able to tell how the social structure can come into being as well as how they can be maintained. The rational choice theory will explain how the human race behaves for the most part. There are some limits to the theory. Rational choice theory is based on the idea that individuals act for a particular purpose, that is to maximize their utility. In the simplest way, rational choice theory will say the given number of different options that people will do, because they believe that it will have the best outcome. The field of political science rational choice theory is usually used. Rational choice theorists argue that the study of political analysis need not necessarily include every detail of political information, such as dates, names and places, but that an alternative view can offer a distinctive insight into the nature of political life. An assumption made by rational choice theorists is, every human is motivated by self-interest and will figure out their own moves so that they can maximize their own interests. The rational choice theories are more likely to deter property crimes than to violence crimes if increased sanctions are put in play. The......

Words: 795 - Pages: 4

Crime

...Controlling Organized Crime Paper LaShanda McMahon 1/26/15 CJA/384 Professor Faggione Controlling Organized Crime Paper Crime is a part of every type of society. It would be naïve to believe that a society could completely rid itself of crime, as long as there are people in the world crimes will be commited. Crime is based on the perception and the actions of individuals. Some see their actions as good and some see them as bad. The problem with this is that sometimes the perception of those committing negative acts that society views as crimes do not see their actions as criminal. Crime is based on the actions of the individuals and depending upon the moral statutes that the society has brought upon them the society deems what is criminal by what they perceive and have implemented as illegal. In this paper an attempt to identify the problems, which are obtainable, and the innumerable associations recognized through organized crime will be established. We will attempt to designate the legitimate boundaries correlated with contesting organized crime, involving an analysis of the general national laws and stratagems that sustenance this exertion. We will also attempt to propose a convincing clarification regarding controlled organized crime by examining and assessing the efficiency of organized crime examinations. Although most issues related to social control or moral regulation have a political aspect to them, discussions related to ‘organized crime’ are......

Words: 1072 - Pages: 5

Crime

...  This article was an interessting read of the statistics concerning violent crime in  america. It takes into account income and educations as being major factors that contribute to the  rate of crime that we experience here in the United States.  While this relation is not 100%, it still  is very useful in understanding how and why crime is more prevalent in certain areas of the  country than in others.     To better understand this article it’s important to understand what crime really is. Crime is  defined as an action or an instance of negligence that is deemed injurious to the public welfare or  morals or to the interests of the state and that illegally prohibited. There is a long list of different  categories of crimes. Crimes can generally be divided up into 4 categories: Personal crimes,  Property crimes, Inchoate crimes and statutory crimes. Personal crimes are  “Offenses against the  Person”: These are crimes result in physical or mental harm to another person. Personal crimes  include: Assault , Battery, False Imprisonment, Kidnapping, Homicide – crimes such as first and  second degree, murder, and involuntary manslaughter, and vehicular homicide, Rape, statutory  rape, sexual assault and other offenses of a sexual nature. Property Crimes – “Offenses against  Property”: These are crimes that do not necessarily involve harm to another person. Instead, they  involve an interference with another person’s right to use or enjoy their property. Property ......

Words: 1820 - Pages: 8

2012 Us Cost of Cyber Crime Study Final6

...2012 Cost of Cyber Crime Study: United States Sponsored by HP Enterprise Security Independently conducted by Ponemon Institute LLC Publication Date: October 2012 Ponemon Institute© Research Report 2012 Cost of Cyber Crime Study: United States Benchmark Study of U.S. Companies Ponemon Institute October 2012 Part 1. Executive Summary We are pleased to present the 2012 Cost of Cyber Crime Study: United States, which is the third annual study of US companies. Sponsored by HP Enterprise Security, this year’s study is based on a representative sample of 56 organizations in various industry sectors. While our research focused on organizations located in the United States, many are multinational corporations. For the first time, Ponemon Institute conducted cyber crime cost studies for companies in the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia and Japan. The findings from this research are presented in separate reports. Cyber attacks generally refer to criminal activity conducted via the Internet. These attacks can include stealing an organization’s intellectual property, confiscating online bank accounts, creating and distributing viruses on other computers, posting confidential business information on the Internet and disrupting a country’s critical national infrastructure. Consistent with the previous two studies, the loss or misuse of information is the most significant consequence of a cyber attack. Based on these findings, organizations need to be more......

Words: 9057 - Pages: 37

Crime

...Pardeep Binning TuTh 4-550pm Crime Unemployment and crime rate. They’re not the prettiest of terms, but they do raise a few eyebrows. The economic situation that the world has been in for the past few years has truly kept everyone on their toes regarding job security. Shouldn’t be surprising when the unemployment rate from 2007, which was 4.6%, more than doubled by the end of 2009 to 10% (Bureau of Labor Statistics). Without the steady income of a job, it’s common sense to infer that some people have to take drastic measures to reach end’s meet. Bruce Weinberg, an associate professor of economics at Ohio State University, says, "A decline in wages increases the relative payoff of criminal activity. It seems obvious that economic conditions should have an impact on crime…” Due to the high rate of unemployment, people have turned to a life of crime in order to stay. Most people do not intend to do harm to another person, however, while trying to commit even the smallest crime such as a robbery someone can get hurt or even worse die. That is why according to the report on CNN, there has been an increase in small time robberies such as convenient stores and gas stations. Those types of stores are small and have almost everything someone’s needs to survive. The robbers are not doing it because they want, but they are doing it because they have no other way of acquiring food for their family. Feeding your family has been a natural instinct, and most parents would do anything......

Words: 1284 - Pages: 6

Crime

...Crime has been a part of our lives for thousands of years. According to the Christian Bible some of the first crimes date back to the earliest people. Reports of theft and murder occur throughout the Bible. Presently all types of crimes are happening all of the time. With crime comes the need for punishment. Modern punishments for offenses in our country include things as minor as community service hours or as severe as the death penalty depending on the crime. The people who enforce these punishments make up the criminal justice system. Three of the main parts of the criminal justice system are law enforcement, the courts and prisons. Law enforcement includes jobs such as sheriffs and patrol officers.The court system offers careers in law. Correctional facilities and prisons include jobs such as counseling and correctional officers. There are many jobs involved in law enforcement. The sheriff, the highest-ranking officer in law enforcement, oversees the entire department. The sheriff is an elected office that is voted on by the citizens of the county. Once elected a sheriff holds a four year term. After the four-year term a sheriff can be reelected an unlimited amount of times. The sheriff has several duties both in his office and outdoors. These duties include uniformed patrol, crime prevention, and criminal investigations. The sheriff also has some of the duties of a patrol officer such as apprehending......

Words: 1895 - Pages: 8

Crime

...The Study of Crime By Juan Andres Alvarez Crime & Society Instructor: Sara Rogers September 19, 2011 The Study of Crime: Throughout recorded history there have been numerous theories that explain why criminal behavior exists. One of those theories is The Classical Theory of Criminology, it states that the combination of free will, hedonistic decision making and the failure of the social contact in producing criminal behavior. I tend to agree that it all come done to free-will and the desire to commit such acts. In order to comprehend the study of crime we must first learn to prevent crime. There are many crime prevention programs that have work others have not. Unlike these theories many of these programs have not yet been evaluated or hold enough creditable scientific evidence to draw positive conclusions. Enough evidence is available, however, to create provisional lists of what might work; what hasn’t, and what’s potential to work in the foreseeable future. In order to formulate a possible list of programs in our neighborhoods we must continue to study of crime and its many possibilities; and to purse and punish those criminals that break the law and bring them to justice. We as society should focus on not just what type of crimes are been committed or to what rate they are been committed but we should focus our attention on the aspect of crime that has not been studied before the learning to find peace amongst ourselves. Before we can learn to find...

Words: 2331 - Pages: 10

Crime

... [pic] PROJECT TITLE: CRIME INFORMATION MAPPING SYSTEM CLIENT: KENYA POLICE SERVICE NAME: STANLEY OLUOCH OMORE REG NO: BIT-008-0056/2009 UNIT NAME: PROJECT SUPERVISOR: …………………….. DUE DATE: 31ST MARCH 2012 An Implementation Plan Documentation Submitted in Partial fulfillment for the degree of Bachelor of Science and Information Technology. Declaration I hereby declare that this project is my original work and has not been submitted to any other university for assessment of award of the degree or any other qualification. Name........................................................................ Signature................................................................... Date..................... Supervisor: ............................................................... Signature.................................................................... Date..................... Table of Contents Declaration 2 CHAPTER 1 4 Introduction 4 1.0 Purpose 4 1.1 Roles and Responsibilities 5 1.2 Implementation Readiness Review 6 1.3 Operational Readiness Review 6 1.4 Demonstration of the software 6 CHAPTER 2 7 Plan for hardware procurement 7 2.0 Training 7 2.1 Hardware installation 8 2.2 Software installations 8 2.3 System installation 8 2.3 User /Operator Training 8 CHAPTER 3 9 Implementation 9 3.0 Live Running Trial 9 3.1 Phased Implementation (Modular) 9 3.2 Parallel Run 10 3.3 Direct 10...

Words: 2216 - Pages: 9

Crime

...CASE #1 WHEN THE WORKPLACE BECOMES A CRIME SCENE On the morning of September 8, 2009, security cameras showed Annie Le, a doctoral student in the Yale School of Medicine’s Department of Pharmacology, entering the campus building in which she worked as an animal researcher. When Le failed to return home that evening, her roommates reported her missing to local police. Because security footage didn’t show Le leaving the building, authorities immediately closed it off, and Le’s body was found five days later, hidden inside a wall in a basement laboratory. She had been strangled. It was September 13 – the day on which Le, 24, was to be married. On September 17, police arrested Raymond Clark III, also 24, a lab technician who’d been working in the building on the day that Le disappeared. As of this writing, neither Clark nor the police have indicated any motive, but New Haven police chief James Lewis is on record as saying, “This is not about urban crime, university crime, [or] domestic crime, but an issue of workplace violence, which is becoming a growing concern around the country.” How much concern? In 2007, the last year for which there is reliable data, there were more than 5,600 work-related deaths in the United States. Of these, 864, or 15 percent, were due to assaults or other violent acts; homicides accounted for 628 deaths, or 11 percent of the total, with murder passing “Contact with objects and equipment” to take over the number-two spot in cause of......

Words: 2401 - Pages: 10