Crime and Deviance

In: Social Issues

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Deviance
The study of deviance is the basis for criminology in sociology—the study of crime and its effects on society. nDeviance refers to the socially disapproved violations of important norms and expectations of a society. nWho is deviant differs from one culture to another. nStigma is the mark of deviance (the Scarlet Letter). n 5/17/2002 1

Social control n n

Social controls are sanctions which try to keep people from deviance. Internal social controls are behaviors and attitudes socialized into the individual to protect them from deviance. External controls are society’s mechanisms like the law and the police. Since everyone breaks social rules and norms, the sociology of deviance usually refers to those who do it big-time.
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Theories of deviance
Who becomes deviant? Why do they do it?

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Labeling theory n Labeling theory: a person becomes deviant when they get labeled as such. Getting a deviant identity means distinguishing between primary and secondary deviance. Primary deviance is where most people do something deviant but it is not discovered; secondary deviance is where a person takes on the identity of a deviant and may be thrust into a “deviant career.” Labeling theory fails to explain when being labeled deviant can jolt someone out of becoming a career deviant. Deviants are seen here as helpless victims rather than bad guys
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Transmission theory n 5/17/2002

Cultural transmission theory or differential association theory: deviance is learned through “transmission,” social interactions with others who are deviant. Criminals learn from other criminals. Dependent on the intensity of contact with deviants; the age at which contact takes place (younger the more vulnerable); the ratio of contacts with deviants. Cultural transmission theory fails to explain those people who are…...

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