Crime Causation

In: Other Topics

Submitted By joneal09
Words 1574
Pages 7
Theories of Crime Causation: Unit 3 Individual Project
Jimmie O'Neal
AIU Online

Theories of Crime Causation: Unit 3 Individual Project
There are a few different sociological theories of crime that experts have been debating over the course of time. A few of these theories include: the Social Control Theory, the Strain Theory, the Differential Association Theory, and the Neutralization Theory. All of these theories are different looks on the reasons that criminals make the decisions that they do to commit crimes.
The first theory to look at is the Social Control Theory. This theory provides an explanation for how behavior conforms to that which is generally accepted in society. For social control theory, the underlying view of human nature includes the conception of free will, thereby giving offenders the capacity of choice and responsibility for their behaviors (Leonard and Morris). This theory aligns itself more with the classical philosophy. The basic principle states that almost all criminals recognize that laws should be followed, but society has yet to stop the crime and deviance that seems to be a growing problem in the world today. One strength to this theory is that it offers an explanation that the offenders often know what they are doing and that they recognize that it is wrong. As such, they should be held accountable for whatever crime that they have committed, by the court system. The weakness to this is that it seems to never be implemented. It is casually ignored in today’s society, and most crimes are either explained away with another form of a different theory, such as the Strain Theory. As previously stated, most people DO, in fact, realize that they are committing a crime and know it is wrong, but they still do so and hope that they do not get caught. Sometimes, these crimes are small and non-violent, but there are times where…...

Similar Documents

Theories of Crime Causation

...Unit 5 IP: Theories of Crime Causation American InterContinental University Virgen Ramos Abstract This essay will cover four main theories: the social control theory, the neutralization theory, the labeling theory, and the routine activities theory. These four theories will then be compared to the following four programs: the Midnight Basketball League programs, the Weed and Seed programs, the Graffiti Reduction program, and the Prison Rehabilitation program. They will each be discussed and described thoroughly with the use of examples. Overall, this essay will cover how the public is trying to decrease crime rates. Unit 5 IP: Theories of Crime Causation In this large world, we have large amounts of crime rates. These high crime rates lead to the creations of specific theories. These theories lead to the makings of specific programs. These specific programs all have to do with a theory. This theory is what gives the public the idea to form a program to try to see if it will help. Discussed in this essay will be many different theories and which programs go along with them. The first theory to be introduced in this essay is Hirschi’s social control theory. “Hirschi’s social control theory proposes that delinquents fail to form or maintain a bond to society consisting of attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief” (Wiatrowski, 1981, p. 525). In other words, his theory is that if people are not involved in something they enjoy doing, something they look forward...

Words: 1379 - Pages: 6

Crime Causation and Diversion Paper

...Crime Causation and Diversion Paper James McMichael CJA/374 March 12, 2014 Pamela Linden Crime Causation and Diversion Paper In this paper will compare juvenile diversion and intervention programs operating in the state of Colorado and how they work to reduce crime. Included will be an analysis of the relationship between the premise of each program, their goals, and the major cause for juvenile delinquent behaviors. Each program will be identified as to what their major goals, core beliefs, and objectives are. The key participants of these programs will also be identified along with the types of services they provide to juveniles. Of the two programs provided will include my own explanation as to why one program may be more effective at reducing juvenile crime than the other. In over the last two decades juvenile crimes have accounted for a large portion of criminal cases within the juvenile justice system. The most common crimes committed by juveniles usually involve theft, drug abuse, simple assault or disorderly conduct and account for nearly half of all juvenile arrests. Among these crimes theft has been found to be the leading cause for crimes committed by juveniles. Between 1980 and 1995 juveniles arrested for larceny theft grew from just over 1,400 to well over 1,600 per 100,000 people aged 10 to 17. Although this growth declined 52% by 2006; however by 2010 77% of all juvenile arrests were for larceny theft. Despite the recent growth of larceny theft among......

Words: 1098 - Pages: 5

Crime Causation

...Crime Causation and Diversion CJA/374 May 5, 2014, 2014 Daryl Wolfgang Crime Causation and Diversion Determining the reasons juveniles commit crimes is a perplexing undertaking. Researchers have concluded “that no single cause accounts for all delinquency and that no single pathway leads to a life of crime,” however; there are risk factors (OJJDP, 2010). Risk factors include child abuse, lack of parental supervision or discipline, peer influences, and other environmental factors (OJJDP, 2010). Numerous prevention programs have been implemented by juvenile justice officials to educate children on the downfalls of criminal or delinquent behavior. Just as programs have been implemented to intervene once a child commits a crime, and aftercare programs have been implemented to deal with the aftermath. This paper will highlight two of those programs; Virginia’s Intensive Parole Program, and the D.A.R.E program (Drug Abuse Resistance Education). Program Overviews The Intensive Parole Program (IPP) is used for chronic for high-risk juvenile offenders, serving sentences in either of two facilities (Beaumont and Hanover Juvenile Correctional Centers). The program is used to help juveniles learn coping skills prior to returning to the community to prevent them from reoffending, thus reducing juvenile crime. The juveniles are required to attend life skills classes while detained to teach them important......

Words: 1071 - Pages: 5

Crime Causation and Diversion Paper

...Crime Causation and Diversion Paper CJA 374 3/23/14 Crime Causation and Diversion Paper The rise of Juvenile delinquency and juvenile related crimes have been a top topic in the U.S, leaving the question of why is it happening? What can be done to change such behavior? What can we do to help the children of today become better adults for tomorrow? All of these question have answers, answers in which you will discover within this paper. You will learn about the programs that Nevada offers for juvenile offenders as well as their parents. You will be introduced to two programs that help deter children from committing delinquent acts, the goals they set forth for future generation and the key participants in each program introduced to you. By the end of the paper, you will have a better understand on what can be done for juveniles in Nevada and how it is a beginning step to helping juveniles around the U.S. Juvenile Detention Alternative Initiative Diversion programs are an attempt to divert or change the course of a juvenile’s involvement in the justice system. It sole purpose is to help divert juveniles from entering the system, placing them outside of detention centers that could pose to be possibly more harm than good. Diversion programs also help the juvenile justice system by helping to ease the work load and help keep the population at juvenile detention center at a manageable limit. Since 2004, Wash County, Nevada Justice Services has teamed up with Annie E.......

Words: 1082 - Pages: 5

Crime Causation Richard Ramirez

...Crime Causation Essay Case Study: Richard Ramirez Adriana Owens El Camino College AJ 100 Spring 2015 Born in El Paso Texas on February 28, 1960 Richard Ramirez, AKA the Night Stalker terrorized the city of Los Angeles during a two year period committing multiple murders, sexual assaults, and burglaries. This case study of Ramirez focuses on the possible motives and factors that may have contributed to his brutal crimes. Ramirez was convicted for 13 murders, five attempted murders, 11 sexual assaults, and 14 burglaries. He was known to engage in satanic rituals and showed no empathy for the victims he demonically murdered. This case study will examine three possible reasons that may have influenced such behavior using the social process theory, social disorganization theory, and rational choice theory. Crime Causation Theory The Social Process Theory Ramirez childhood was spent In El Paso Texas with his family where he experienced constant physical abuse from his father. At the age of twelve Ramirez became heavily influenced by his older cousin Miguel “Mike” Ramirez. Ramirez viewed his cousin as somewhat of a role model and had been exposed to extremely violent events at a very early...

Words: 615 - Pages: 3

Causation of Crime

...people in prisons had higher hormone levels. One crime trend that is noticeable is the crime trend among certain classes of Americans. It relates to the Social Conflict Theory because it tells how there is a direct correlation between low-income communities and crime. The percentage of inmates in prison that come from low-income neighborhoods is staggeringly high. It is believed that it is a learned behavior that is picked up from family and friends. The Social Conflict Theory also states that if someone is labeled as a criminal or delinquent they are more likely to live up to that label. Then once they have formed the habit of criminal behavior they become “hardened” criminals and it is usually impossible to waiver them from future criminal activities. In Orlando there is a neighborhood that is noticeably low-income. If you compare that neighborhood to a neighborhood in Lake Mary Florida ( which is known to be mid to high-income) the crime rate is 77 percent higher in the low-income neighborhood. It appears that there is obviously a connection between low-income, under-educated neighborhoods and crime. Some think that it is because they are angry about biased laws but I believe that it could be because they have less to lose. I feel that If someone has to worry about affecting a good paying job, credit, or criminal record they are less likely to commit a crime. I also believe that many people are convicted of crimes because they cannot afford to have adequate......

Words: 436 - Pages: 2

Crime Causation and Diversion

...Crime Causation and Diversion Mindy Mohr CJA/374 June 17, 2015 Sarah Boucher Crime Causation and Diversion In this paper, there will be a comparison of two different prevention program that was chosen. From those two intervention programs, there will be a discussion on how the programs work in reducing juvenile crime, and based on the analysis of the relationship between program premise and goals and one or more major causes of juvenile delinquent behavior. In another discussion, there will be explanations of what the two intervention programs major goals are, the programs objectives, and what the programs core beliefs are. The key participants that are involved in these programs will also be explained, as well as what services they provide for the youth. The last discussion will be identifying which one of the programs between the two is more effective at reducing juvenile crime and why. The two programs that I have chosen are the Father and Son prevention Program, and the YES (Youth Empowerment Solutions) prevention program. The Father and Son project is in Michigan and is a program designed for African American fathers and their sons ranging in age from 10-14 ("Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center", 2015). The Father and Son prevention Program is aimed to heighten the parenting behaviors as well as reducing the risk of youth behaviors. With this program, it helps the father and son bond so that way in the future the son would not have self-esteem issues......

Words: 1211 - Pages: 5

Criminological Theories of Crime Causation

...Criminological Theories of Crime Causation: Biological, Sociological, and Psychological Carrie Siewert, CJ499 Kaplan University Author Note October 5, 2015 Criminological Theories of Crime Causation: Biological, Sociological, and Psychological For centuries, documentation of criminal cases filled the inboxes of the numerous police officers’, investigators’, and forensic laboratory analysists’ exceeding the limits of caseloads possible for any given criminal justice professional responsible for solving criminal cases. Each giving everything they have to catch the guilty and thus, providing justice to the victims who suffered because of someone’s criminal behaviors and actions. Each with the same or similar inquiries; why do people commit the crimes they commit? Why do they behave this way? What is their purpose? Were the born this way? What, if anything, happen to them to make them behave in such a heinous manner? Are they a victim of their own environment and/or social status? Of course, these inquiries cover only a minute number of possible indications as to answering the “Why?” people commit these criminal behaviors and actions. Criminology identifies ascertains three amalgamations of theories, each of which attempt to justify inquiries by working exuberantly to establish a high level of credibility and reliability; the following will address how these biological, sociological, and psychological theories of crime causation affect human behavior and/or......

Words: 1163 - Pages: 5

Causation of Crime Collaboration

...Roque Vidaurri Causation of Crime Collaboration Activity The crime trend of guns and crime has always been a problem in bigger cities. This problem, in a big city like Los Angeles, is more probable to happen than smaller cities for the simple fact of population. The estimated population of Los Angeles is 9,848,011; with this large of a population gun related crime rates are more likely to happen. In 2009 Los Angeles had 16,162 guns that where involved in crimes traced back to the city of Los Angeles (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, 2010). In one year Los Angeles has had more gun related crimes than the area I live in in the past ten years. This problem might be contributed to many theories and not just one. My feelings are that population as well as areas of these cities might be a contributing factor. This society is more prone to have gun related problems in more populated areas due to the fact that there is a lot more diversity and population jammed into on area. Many people may ask what we can do to alleviate these causes, but is there a true solution to growing populations? In my sole opinion there is not. This research has combined more than one trend and actually combines a couple of them. It seems to me that the more populated cities and in the more densely populated locations of those cities, there is higher gun related crime rates. Race is a factor, but is now starting to begin to be across all races and not just in......

Words: 314 - Pages: 2

Crime Causation and Diversion

...Crime Causation and Diversion Kendra McCauley CJA 374 July 27, 2015 Professor Erica Williams Crime Causation and Diversion The following paper will compare two juvenile diversion programs that are currently offered and operating in the state of Nevada. This paper will address how the programs work to reduce juvenile crime based on an analysis of the relationship between program premise and goals and one or more major causes of juvenile delinquent behavior. This paper will also address the programs’ major goals, objectives, and core beliefs, identify who the key participants are in the programs, what services the programs provide to youths and lastly this paper will identify which program of the two is more effective at reducing juvenile crime and why. The two juvenile diversion programs that will be compared in this paper are, Challenge KADS Sports Diversion in Las Vegas, Nevada and the Truancy Diversion Project which is offered in Clark County, Nevada and other participating schools in various counties. Both of these programs target juveniles in hopes of reducing recidivism in the juvenile justice system while providing support and positivity. Challenge KADS which stands for Kids Art of Defense was established in Southern Nevada by the Police Athletic League in October of 1996. This program brings locals and professional athletes together working with at risk youth ranging in ages from 5-17 to promote sportsmanship, fitness, education and training in the Art of...

Words: 900 - Pages: 4

Theories of Crime Causation

...Theories of Crime Causation November 11th, 2010 Abstract The following will examine the differences between criminalists, criminologists and forensic psychologists. It will then transition into how what exactly is a white collar crime and a blue collar crime. Lastly the paper will discuss the differences between index-one and index-two crimes as defined by the UCR. Media Portrayal of Crime Introduction With the prevalence of crime being portrayed in the media world, it can be difficult for the modern American to decipher all the aspects of crime. Criminology, the study of crime and its causes, is a excellent way to find out just what makes a criminals mind tick. Although it may be hard to know just what makes a person commit a crime, having a better understanding of the base of criminal justice aspects may be of assistance. Criminologists, Criminalists, and Forensic Psychologists With a plethora of jobs out there relating to the field of criminal justice, it may become overwhelming to try and decide who does what and how they do it. To have a better understanding of such fields one must know exactly what each field does separately from the other. A criminologist uses sociological theories and methods to study criminal behavior and how societies respond to crime (Hall, 2010). This means the criminologist seeks to find out the mentality behind a crime and how that thinking affects the society as a whole. By creating theories as to why of how this crime was......

Words: 1634 - Pages: 7

Crime Causation

...Crime Causation Sharon Semien BUS303 August 9, 2011 Katina Douglas Crime Causation In 1980, an Illinois jury convicted John Wayne Gacy for killing 33 young boys and men. Sarcastically, after his conviction, the infamous killer (also known as “The Killer Clown”) said “I should have never been convicted of anything more serious than running a cemetery without a license” (Star Quotes, 2009, p. 1). Obviously, something intrusively wrong resonated in Gacy for him to make such a statement that negated the intensity of his actions. Gacy buried majority of his victims under the crawl space of his home and discarded other victims in the Des Plaines River (Bell & Bardsley, 2011). People often question what would make someone do such vicious and torturous acts on another person. Criminologists developed theories explaining the reasons people deviate from societal norms and commit immoral acts laws prohibit (Schmallenger, 2003). Particularly, in this case, John Wayne Gacy is a person suitable to study. Certainly, a few crime causation theories explain how his upbringing, life experiences, and other deep, underlying issues led him to committing crimes to the extent he did. Gacy’s Background Information Gacy was the only son of three children born to Marion and John Gacy. He had an older sister (Joanne) and younger sister (Karen). The Gacy’s were a middle-classed, Catholic family who lived on the north side of Chicago. As a young boy in middle school, Gacy......

Words: 2302 - Pages: 10

Crime Causation and Diversion

...Crime Causation and Diversion CJA374 February 20, 2012 Crime Causation and Diversion In the State of Florida there are three diversion programs, which are presently active today. They consist of Teen Court, Juvenile arbitration groups, and Neighborhood Accountability committees. These diversion committees are available to those children who have disobeyed the laws so that they will have a speedy and straightforward bearing that stresses the seriousness of a valuable citizenship, individual honesty, and family connection. The preceding are various contributors of the juvenile delinquency. The primary goal of these programs are to redirect people of young ages that have violated the law for the first time from becoming more involved with the criminals justice system (Sixth Judicial Circuit, 2012). A delinquent child in Florida is either sent the Arbitration program either by the judge or the State’s Attorney’s office so that a consultation can be heard between the victim’s parents, defendant, and the victim. A discussion of what took place and the reason the defendant is there along with a detailed arrangement for the victim to abide by while under these conditions for punishment. A completed contract will need to be signed outlining the stipulations before the close of arbitration. Each case is handled differently and has separate assignments. Juries that are present during teen court along with community boards are responsible for handling down the assignments. The......

Words: 1074 - Pages: 5

Causation of Crime

...devise a variety of theories to determine the causes of crime. Two commonly recognized theories, the choice theory and the social conflict theory, highlight very different perspectives to explain why individuals commit crime. The choice theory suggests that a person commits a crime because they choose to. This choice happens during a moment when a person will weigh the consequences of committing a crime to decide whether the reward is worth it. Theorists believe that a person can think rationally through the decision-making process of committing a crime. The rewards may be financial and can also be sensual. The criminal may be seduced by the rush they may feel when committing the crime. In contrast, the social conflict theory deals less with the psychology of committing a crime and suggests power is the root cause of crime. This theory suggests that the real crimes exist in society through means of “poverty, racism, sexism, and destruction of the environment” (p. 37, Gaines & Miller, 2006). Furthermore, crimes are suggested to be reactions to this power because criminals view laws as a form of repression. Capitalism is also thought to have a negative influence on society and fuels frustration because of the disparity people feel seeking unattainable rewards. Crime trends provide useful data to help criminologists test theories and create a clearer understanding of the causation of crime. A crime trend that is strengthened by statistical evidence is......

Words: 653 - Pages: 3

Crime Causation

...CRJS 105 Crime Causation Unit 4 DB There are some cities and neighborhoods that have higher crime rates than others. I believe this is due to the social disorganization theory. This theory suggests that structural characteristics may impact the areas level of social control. An example of this is that people who reside in a high poverty are usually divided by both racial and ethic differences. Also people generally do not live in these areas for very long. This factor of high turnover in the neighborhood breaks down any neighbor relationships’ that would form and in turn lower the crime rate for the area. (Ruth Triplett, Randy Gainy,2007) Why do some people in low crime areas commit crimes and others in high crime area refrain from committing crimes? It is my belief that this is due to with a person’s internal control. In general people believe that crime is wrong. At what extent that these people do believe crime is wrong is partly a function of their internal control. Is these people were not taught that crime was neither bad or good there believes neither restrains them from committing crime nor push them to commit crimes. They have developed an amoral orientation to crime. The fact that these people have amoral beliefs frees them to pursue their desires and needs in the most expedient way. (Crime Causation 2011) On the other hand there are people that have a personality trait that can cause them to be less responsive to internal control, thus rendering them less......

Words: 467 - Pages: 2