Crimes Against Property

In: Other Topics

Submitted By dsdale0747
Words 753
Pages 4
Assignment 4: Crimes Against Property
Debbie Dale
Professor Lori Baggot
LEG320 – Criminal Law
June 5, 2013

Debbie Dale
Professor Baggot
LEG 320 – Criminal Law
June 5, 2012 Assignment 4- Crimes against Property

In the crime of shoplifting the taking requirement can be met by the fact that the shoplifter intentionally came into the store to commit theft. Shoplifters generally sell the stolen goods that they acquire. Shoplifting is defined as stealing goods retail stores by concealment, generally on the person of the defendant. Commission of the act does not require removal of the goods form the store. The key to taking is that the shoplifter takes unauthorized possession over another’s property. Retail stores allow limited use of a customer handling the merchandise. The customers may examine the clothing; take the merchandise into the dressing room to try on and walk through the store with it in hand or in a shopping cart. What makes it shop lifting is when the customer conceals the merchandise and therefore give the intention to take the merchandise. The merchandise is placed on display to be sold and if it is not purchased it should be return to the display rack. Private security officers for retail stores are trained not to apprehend an alleged thief unless they leave the store with the merchandise that they concealed. But according to People v. Britto the New York Court of Appeals ruled that the merchandise does not have to leave the store in order for the shoplifting to occur. Furthermore it was stated the shoplifter would not treat the merchandise as a regular customer would, if the merchandise is found hidden under the clothes of the shoplifter it is considered concealment and it does not necessarily have to leave the premises. (Thomas Gardner, T.A.(2011))

Different states have different rules for convicting…...

Similar Documents

Crime Against Women

...Crime against women. Image Credit: Indian Express. Crime is an act of wrong doing by voluntary and intentionally. It is very dangerous to the individual and the society. Generally, it involves the violation of social law, moral law and country’s law with the objective to cause harm or injury to other. According to Paul Tappan ‘Crime is an intentional act or omission in violation of criminal law committed without defense or justification’. Mowrer has defined crime as an anti social act. The Oxford English Dictionary defines ‘it is an action which constitutes a serious offence against an individual or the State and is punishable by law. Cause of Crime against Women (1) Situational Cause: The criminal are always active around such places. The crime is committed because of neither of the victim’s behavior nor of the offender’s psychopathological personality, but rather, because of the chance factor like working women or college girl living alone away from home, women coming alone from their working place or parties at late night. Conflict over money matters, ill treatment of husband’s parent may provoke the husband to assault his wife or man employer taking advantage of his female employee finding her alone in his office which creates such situations. (2) Man’s Supremacy: Violence against women is an outcome of the social structure and ideology of gender domination. Man always keeps his supremacy over his wife and other female members of his families. (3) Effect of moves,......

Words: 1755 - Pages: 8

Crime Against Women

...Violence against women is not a new or recent phenomenon women have been the victims of violence all through the age, in all societies, cultures regions or religious communities in the world. It is indeed, ironic that in India, which has given rise to apostles of peace and non-violence, women have to bear the brunt of violence-domestic as well as public, physical as well as emotional and mental. Violence against women can be viewed in the historical perspective, for it is to a large extent, linked to her status in society. In the Vedic period, Indian women enjoyed a relatively comfortable position. Gradually violence against them beggar to be practised; the doors of educational, economic, social, political and cultural opportunities were gradually closed for them. Even their personal freedom in respect of movement, diet, dress, marriage, etc. comes to be curtailed. Every effort was made to make them meek and docile. Women also began to be enslaved and prostituted. All this brought them to the level of chattel or cattle. They became commodities which could be sold and purchased which could be tailored to perform different functions. Various obligations restrictions and regulations were imposed on them and different penalties and punishments were prescribed if women violated them. Thus violence against them came to have a societal sanction. Around the begging of the Christian era, Manu laid down the Hindu code. His laws insist that women must consider......

Words: 1776 - Pages: 8

Crime Against Elderly

...Crimes against the elderly in socially organized and disorganized communities Table of Contents Introduction 4 Defining Elderly Abuse 7 Traditional Societies 8 The length of the problem 9 Institutional Settings 9 Risk factor for Elder Abuse 10 Individual factors 10 Factors of Relationship 11 Factors of Community and Society 12 The result of elder abuse 14 Domestic Settings 14 Treatment in institutions 14 Preventing Elder Abuse 15 Feedback from national level 16 Responses from local people 18 Social Service 19 Health Care 20 Legal Proceeding 21 Campaign to generate public awareness 22 Recommendations 23 Greater Knowledge 23 Causes of the abuse 24 Impact of abuse 24 Evaluating the process 24 Stringent laws 24 Basic Rights for Elders 25 Traditions 25 Other preventive measures 26 Conclusion 27 Reference 28 Introduction The history of elderly abuse is not a very new phenomenon. It can be traced back from a very early age if we flip through the sociological status of yesteryear. However with the passage of time and further defining a goal to reform child abuse and domestic violence, the objective of elderly abuse has also been considered in the agenda. Unlike other form violence, the elderly violence has come into limelight with the progress of public health and criminal justice. The issue of these two forms has paved a way to view, analyse and curb the issue on violence towards senior citizens of a society. This......

Words: 7543 - Pages: 31

Crime Against Women

...First, jurisdiction has gender. Whenever power is being allocated between state and federal courts, one must ask not only how women are treated but how the allocation affects our understanding of the problems that belong to women and to men. By drawing jurisdictional lines, polities may also be drawing gender lines. We must probe both the jurisdiction in gender, and the gender in jurisdiction. Second, I counsel against assuming that any particular jurisdiction is necessarily a safe harbor for women's equality. Equality is not an artifact of the level of a court or of a government body but of who has power within it and what their commitments are. Therefore, I am opposed to what I have termed "categorical federalism," to rigid equation of any particular level of governance with a particular set of problems or a particular view of them. Laws are not unidimensional but often affect many aspects of a person's life. Opponents of VAWA who wanted to label it a statute about families and about crime were right to understand that it did implicate family life and street crime. But they were wrong to see the provision in only those terms. VAWA was also about the relationships among violence, commerce, and equal citizenship. But proponents of equal citizenship ought not to assume that national or transnational legislation could ever suffice to alter the material conditions of women's lives. They need to look to state as well as national and international efforts to forward those......

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

Analysis of Property Crimes

...Overview: This paper presents statistics on major factors that affects the property crime rates in the U.S. Abstract: The property crime rates of 45.7% occurs more in urban areas. About 16.8% of the crimes were committed by high school dropouts and only 0.4% of the crimes that occurs were related to the population density. The type of property crimes that happens includes larceny-theft, home burglary, home invasion, grand theft auto, forgery, and arson. These types of crimes may be caused by factors such as high school dropouts, the population density per square mile, and people living in urban areas. The paper will focus on the crimes against properties such as larceny-theft, home burglary, and grand theft auto, not a person. Crimes of property happen more often than other crimes. Larceny is a type of theft when someone takes something that does not belong to them. Home burglary is breaking into a private resident with the intent of stealing something. Grand theft auto is an act of stealing a motor vehicle. Are the property crime rates higher in urban areas? Does the level of education have any effect on the percentage of crimes that are happening? How about the percentage of people living in a population per square mile? All of these factors may play an important role with the number of crimes that are happening today. Method: Louis J. Moritz, an Operations Manager, collected data from a variety of U.S. government sources. He provided a sample data set......

Words: 1469 - Pages: 6

Property Crime Determinants

...Property Crime Determinants Executive Summary There are three primary determinants that effect property crime, which are the high school dropout rate, the population density, and the percentage of people who reside in an urban area. It was found that other factors such as unemployment, public aid , and income do not significantly contribute towards the level of property crime and are actually some of the misconceptions involving crime in the United States. Introduction Perception is the way that a situation may be viewed by an individual or group through "an awareness or understanding of" that situation (Merriam-Webster online, 2010). This understanding may not always be correct. A person's understanding may be clouded by various things that actually cause a misunderstanding of the situation: such as personal factors that create a bias, incorrect or skewed data, information provided by the media, and so on. Property crime is one of these situations where perception may not always be reality. The purpose of this research is to study data that has to do with several factors that may or may not effect property crime rates in the United States. I seek to answer several questions regarding property crime rates in the United States: what are the primary determinants of property crime in the United States, what would I like to know about property crime rates that cannot be answered by the provided data, and how does population density effect property crime rates and is......

Words: 2175 - Pages: 9

Crimes Against Property

...Crimes against Property 2 The definition for property crimes, according to www.findlaw.com/propertycrime; property crimes are crimes related to theft or destruction of someone else’s property. The crimes can range for shoplifting as the lower level and armed robbery and arson as the higher level. Illustrate the different ways that the taking requirement can be met in the crime of shoplifting, and how private security officers are trained to handle a shoplifting incident. The crime of shoplifting, according to Gardner/ Anderson, (2012); is retail theft, is form of theft and larceny. Shoplifting has the same essential elements as theft and larceny: a taking and carrying away, of the property of another, without consent and with intent to steal and deprive the owner of possession of the property. In modern self-service stores, customers are invited to examine merchandise in display. According to Gardner/ Anderson, (2012); garment may be taken to dressing room and tried on. Stores do not consent to concealment of their merchandise by customers. The merchandise is offered for sale, and if customers are not going to purchase an object, they are obligated to return the merchandise to the display counter in good condition. Private security officers and retail employees, according to Gardner/ Anderson, (2012); if crime was not seen, it has not happened.......

Words: 950 - Pages: 4

Property and Computer Crimes Paper

...Property and Computer Crimes Paper John Samaniego, CJA354 May 22, 2011 Property and Computer Crimes Paper In today’s society because of the economic stress and high unemployment rate many crimes exist. The criminal justice system has become overwhelmed with various crimes. Summarizing and defining these crimes society will have a better understanding of these crimes as well as the effect these crimes may have on the community in a negative manner. Not only do these crimes effect society these crimes put a major strain on the criminal justice system as well as the professionals within this system. Kidnapping is the act of removing an individual(s) through intimidation, threat(s) fraud or force from the place for which he or she is found. Kidnapping invades one`s privacy as well as disrupts his or her freedom. Kidnapping also considered a form of aggravated false imprisonment because of the moving and hiding an individual(s). Early common law says that abduction by force and transporting of individual(s) out of his or her country created an act of kidnapping. In today`s judicial system kidnapping cases look more upon the degree of movement in regard to the distance that the abductor(s) forcefully moved an individual(s) Movement must involve substantial amount of distance. For example, forcing an individual out of one`s way or even moving an individual across the street is not looked upon as kidnapping in the criminal justice system (Schmalleger, 2010). False......

Words: 1179 - Pages: 5

Crime Against Women in India

...Physical, emotional and mental . Male violence against women are worldwide phenomenon. Fear of violence is an important factor in the lives of most women. Fear of violence is the cause of lack of participation in every sphere of life. There are various forms of crime against women. Sometimes it is even before birth, some times in the adulthood and other phrases of life. In the Indian society, position of women is always perceived in relation to the man. This perception has given birth to various customs and practices. Violence against women both inside and outside of their home has been a crucial issue in the contemporary Indian society. Women in India constitute near about half of its population and most of them are grinding under the socio-cultural and religious structures. One gender has been controlling the space of the India 's social economic, political and religious fabric since time immemorial. The present study felt the need that in the era of globalization and modernization the present trends of crimes against women is on increase. Recently the brutal gang rape against 23 year student in Delhi again sparked the debate on Indian mental set up and existing law and order in the Country. Various legislation for safeguarding the women: There are various legislation has been incorporated regarding the safeguarding of the women. Various Legislation for safeguarding crime against women, classified under two categories: The Crime under Indian Penal Code (IPC): i. Rape......

Words: 1896 - Pages: 8

Crimes Against Women

...Names like Kalpana Chawla: The Indian born, who fought her way up into NASA and was the first women in space, and Indira Gandhi: The Iron Woman of India was the Prime Minister of the Nation, Beauty Queens like Aishwarya Rai and Susmita Sen, and Mother Teresa are not representative of the condition of Indian women. Over 32000 murders, 19,000 rapes, 7500 dowry deaths and 36500 molestation cases are the violent crimes reported in India in 2006 against women. There are many instances of crime especially against women go unreported in India. These are figures released by the National Crime Records Bureau recently. While Madhya Pradesh is worst off among the states, the national capital New Delhi continues to hold on to its reputation of being the most unsafe city in India. Delhi takes the top slot for crimes ranging from murders and rapes to dowry deaths and abductions. It reflects country's law and order situation when its capital is a cauldron of crime. Instead of leading the way in tackling crime, Delhi only seems to do worse year after year. For instance while the national crime rate declined negligibly by .02 % in 2006; Delhi's rate grew to 357.2more than double the national average of 167.7. Women in India There is no doubt that we are in the midst of a great revolution in the history of women. The evidence is everywhere; the voice of women is increasingly heard in Parliament, courts and in the streets. While women in the West had to fight for over a century to get......

Words: 20252 - Pages: 82

Crimes Against Property

...Crimes against Property Andy Berg Professor Lisa Armonda, J.D. CRJ 105 Crime and Criminal Behavior 21 February 2012 Introduction The phrase "white-collar crime" was coined in 1939 during a speech given by Edwin Sutherland to the American Sociological Society. Sutherland defined the term as "crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation" (Sutherland). Although there has been some debate as to what qualifies as a white-collar crime, the term today generally encompasses a variety of nonviolent crimes usually committed in commercial situations for financial gain. Many white-collar crimes are especially difficult to prosecute because the perpetrators use sophisticated means to conceal their activities through a series of complex transactions. I researched and found an article on a type of white-collar crime. This is the story of a Minnesota resident named Denny Hecker. The case has finally come to an end. Hecker was sentenced to a prison term of 10 years for two counts of fraud and one count of conspiracy. He is the former owner of an auto empire with Chrysler in Minnesota with 26 locations and also owned car rental businesses including Advantage Rent-A-Car. Hecker was basically in a big hole and trying to get out of it. He was hiding assets from the bankruptcy court and was also altering loan documents that ultimately defrauded clients, Chrysler Financial and other lenders out of more than $80 million in loans......

Words: 763 - Pages: 4

Property Crimes

...Property Crimes and the Criminals Behind it History of Theft Theft is not unique to modern times the theft of personal property has been known throughout history. The crusades of the eleventh century inspired peasants and downtrodden noblemen to leave the shelter of their of estates to prey upon passing pilgrims. Crusades felt it was within their rights to appropriate the possessions of any infidels Greeks, Jews, or Muslims they happened to encounter during their travels. By the thirteenth century, returning pilgrims not content to live as serfs on feudal estates, gathered in the forests of England and the continent to poach game that was the rightful property of their lord or king and when possible to steal from passing strangers. By the fourteenth century, many such highwaymen and poachers were full-time thieves, stealing great numbers of cattle and sheep and terrorizing the countryside. The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries brought hostilities between England and France in the Hundred Years’ War. Foreign mercenary troops fighting for both sides roamed the countryside; loot and pillage were viewed as a rightful part of their pay. As cities developed and a permanent class of property less urban poor came into being, theft became more professional. By the eighteenth century, three separate groups of property criminals were active: Skilled thieves typically worked in the large cities, such as London and Paris. This group included pickpocket, forgers, and counterfeiters,......

Words: 1062 - Pages: 5

Crime Against Women

...Prateek Sharma | PG20111185 | Submitted to | Ms. Mehak Bansal | Subject | Problem Framing | Submitted on | 13-04-2012 | Marks Allotted | | Remarks(if any) | | In NCR the crimes against women are on a high. Incidents of molestation, rape and murder are quite frequent – the recent being the incident of rape outside a nightclub in Gurgaon. Haryana Police has directed all nightclub owners and other commercial enterprises not to allot work shift to women after 8 o'clock in the night. This stance of police has come under a lot of flak from different quarters. “A woman who worked at a Gurgaon pub was gang-raped” “21-year-old Radhika Tanwar was shot dead by a suspected stalker in New Delhi” “23-year-old girl was allegedly abducted and gang-raped in a moving car by a neighbour and his friends in Noida” These are some instances showing crime rate against women in National Capital Region. The Delhi-NCR region has thrown up numerous such instances of police apathy in rape cases. When asked to explain the rising instances of rape, the cops have invariably blamed the women, an array of extraneous factors or resorted to specious arguments instead of looking inwards and focusing on police reforms. The most disturbing aspect of this is the rank misogyny that underlies it. Crime against National Capital Region is alarming. Usually every day a single case of rape is reported in every city area of India. So it is wrong to say NCR alone. But The National Capital......

Words: 2029 - Pages: 9

Crime Against Person

...CRIME AGAINST PERSON The article that I pick was, “Hate crime data incomplete due partly to varying police reporting practices”. This week, the FBI reported a 2% increase in hate crimes in 2008, as compared to the previous year. While hate crimes are an important problem in the United States (and abroad), this reported increase itself should be grounds for neither particular concern nor comfort. The reason for this is that the FBI data give us an incomplete picture at best. While federal law requires the FBI to collect hate crime data from local law enforcement agencies, the agencies themselves are not generally required to keep track of hate crimes. Most do - and more did during 2008 than 2007, which may help account for the increase in reported incidents - but some still do not. Even among the agencies that do report hate crimes, however, the accuracy and completeness of the reporting differs a great deal. In a study I conducted several years ago, for example, I found that San Francisco reported nearly ten times as many hate crimes per year as its similarly-sized neighbor to the south, San Jose. A large part of this difference was likely due to the cities' differing approaches to recording and handling hate crimes. At the time, for instance, San Francisco had a bias crime unit and San Jose did not. Other researchers have found very much the same thing in other places; whether a particular incident gets reported as a hate crime may depend a great deal on the......

Words: 875 - Pages: 4

Property Crimes

...CASE 49: PROPERTY CRIMES I. Executive summary The focus of this study is the examination of the data provided by U.S government agencies. Our analysis revealed that of the eight possible contributing factors, only three variables (namely, urbanization rate, high school dropout rate, and population density) affected property crime rates. Our data analysis model accounted for approximately 66% of the factors contributing to property crimes. The model is generally considered to be statistically strong, however, if we need to account for the remaining 34% of factors contributing to property crime rates in the U.S., further data and evaluation of other possible factors would be necessary. II. Introduction  According to the US Department of Justice (2006), property crime includes several criminal offenses such as burglary; car and motorcycle theft, larceny theft and arson. Property crimes involve “taking of money or property, but there is no force or threat of force against the victims.” One exception to the basic rule, however, is arson which does not involve the taking of property and does involve force against the victims. The purpose of this case study is to evaluate available data and attempt to determine the variables that contribute the most and address several conceptions and misconceptions about the leading causes of property crimes in the U.S. The questions that this study will answer include: 1. Are crime rates higher in urban than rural areas? 2...

Words: 3432 - Pages: 14