Environment and World Trade

In: Business and Management

Submitted By vidur1994
Words 7929
Pages 32









This paper provides an overview of trade, environmental, and related public issues and policies. It discusses the pollution problem, the recent global warming trend, the attempts of world’s various levels of institutions such as the UN, the WTO, regional, national, and other organizations to solve the global trade and environmental issues. It also discusses a number of basic theoretical issues and empirical findings such as the free-rider problem, tragedy of the commons, theory of second best, relative efficacy of price and quantity control, carbon leakage, border carbon adjustments, cap-and-trade system, pollution haven hypothesis, optimal social discount rate and the environmental Kuznets curve. Some computable general equilibrium models are reviewed and several notable WTO environmental and health-related trade dispute cases are analyzed, including the tuna-dolphin, shrimp-turtle, eco-labeling, beef- hormone, and GMOs cases.


Trade liberalization can have substantial ramifications for the global environmental policy regime. Lowering trade barriers and opening new markets can boost economic growth and development, which may help or harm the environment. On the one hand, growth and development tend to increase resource and energy demands, degrade natural resources, and bring forth greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to global warning. Trade can also lead to the pollution haven phenomenon since countries may relax their environmental standards to gain a comparative advantage in producing pollution-intensive products. On the other hand, trade may help the environment. Bigger markets spur technological innovation and diffusion, which can reduce the intensity of…...

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