Environmental Crimes

In: Other Topics

Submitted By francescamessa
Words 502
Pages 3
1. Environmental crime refers to crime committed against the environment. Environmental crime relates to corporate and state crime through primary crimes, which are crimes that are currently legal under international law. These crimes cause long lasting damage to the environment such as pollution and deforestation. One example would be the explosion in the factory in Bhopal. Emmons argues that an environmental crime is an action that breaks the national or international law. 2. Differential association was developed by Sutherland whose initial studies were into white collar crime. The culture of the organisation which justifies committing illegal or dubious acts in order to achieve the organisations goals, is what causes all of the corporate and occupational crime. Aubert found that these white collar criminals had an ‘elaborate and widely accepted ideological rationalization for the offences’. Criminal practices were quite normal. This is a way of emphasising with the criminals and understand why they commit the crimes. 3. Emotion based responses link to occupational and corporate crime as they looks at the roles of emotions and masculinity in crime. Portony says that the thrill one gets from committing a crimes is what leads rich an powerful people to committing them. Crimes committed by companies and by individuals are explicable by thrill-seeking. This also link to masculinity as the dominating gender in high positions are male and so they all compete against each other. 4. Nelken applied labelling theory to corporate crime by looking at the works of the English family practitioner panels who investigate those accused of defrauding the NHS by over claiming. For example, a dentist admitted to fraud and the panel pleaded with him to retract his admission so it would not pass as a criminal prosecution. It applies also to corporate crime as negative…...

Similar Documents

Crime

...Crime is something that impacts everyone, whether directly as a victim or indirectly through societal and economic costs. From the early 1960s, in the United States, criminological research resulted from individual efforts. The reliance on individual investigators to conduct and oftentimes fund their own research agenda was primarily a function of a lack of funding sources devoted to issues surrounding criminology and criminal justice. However, research in criminal justice has dramatically increased. The period between 1960 and 1980, saw the enormous increase in efforts in the federal government to initiate research projects that were designed to understand the extent of criminal behavior, including the etiology of criminal behavior, as well as the reaction of the criminal justice system to criminal behavior. Although still under supported financially, funded research efforts during this time period gathered much information that helped set the stage for the continuation and expansion of criminological research efforts. Since 1980, there has been a substantial increase in the financial resources afforded to criminological research, which has led to a large number of activities within criminology and criminal justice system. Looking at the social factors of criminals, it is possible to see these factors could influence criminal decision and the way they handle situations. Mary Bell was an eleven- year-old girl, who lived in England in a poverty stricken area, known......

Words: 2538 - Pages: 11

Crime

...Crime is the result of: | | Steffanie Washington | 10/11/2012 | Crime is the result of both, society and an individual’s decision to commit a crime. It is surely the case that we cannot address crime in only one way. People make conscious choices when engaging in criminal behavior.  Yet, these choices are, to some extent, driven by sociological reality and conditions that surround individuals. I don't believe that all crime is committed in a premeditated manner. I think that some may be at will, or spontaneously. I do also believe that crime can be part of who we are as people. I think that a lot of criminals start off with a small crime and end up in situations to commit bigger crimes. Don’t get me wrong, I do believe we are all responsible for our own actions but I don’t think people just wake up one day and decide to commit a crime. There is something that triggers that person, whether it’s their up bring, poverty, bullying, neglect, abuse, peer pressure, drugs, media, and so much more. When someone is taught to hate, have no remorse for anyone, grow up around crime and drugs, that’s all they know. I feel that some criminals have not been taught the difference between ‘right and wrong.’ There are a lot of people that are given many opportunities in life, but what about those who have not been given the same opportunities. There are a lot of people that are not given a chance in life and I believe that can lead someone to commit a crime. I still believe......

Words: 318 - Pages: 2

Environmental

...First_Pages Lut30352_ch01_001-030.qxd 8/7/09 3:26 PM Page 1 Part One Environmental and Organizational Context 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction to Organizational Behavior: An Evidence-Based Approach Environmental Context: Globalization, Diversity, and Ethics Organizational Context: Design and Culture Organizational Context: Reward Systems 5 31 57 88 EVIDENCE-BASED CONSULTING PRACTICES A major component of the evidence-based theme of this text and the link to practice are these part openers from the world-famous Gallup Organization. Gallup draws from its internationally recognized survey science and cadre of internal and external researchers (e.g., the author of this text and a Nobel Prize winner in behavioral economics are Gallup Senior Scientists), publishes its findings in the top academic journals such as Journal of Applied Psychology and provides this evidenced-based perspective and representative practices for each text part. Gallup is the recognized world leader in the measurement and analysis of human attitudes, opinions, and behavior, building on over three-quarters of a century of success. Gallup employs many of the world’s leading scientists in management, economics, psychology, and sociology. Gallup performance management systems help organizations maximize employee productivity and increase customer engagement through measurement tools, management solutions, and strategic advisory services. Gallup’s 2000 professionals deliver services on-site at client......

Words: 17103 - Pages: 69

Crime

...Criminal Justice The act of an individual or individuals when committing a crime and how a society deals with those individuals has changed over time. Crime is a conduct or violation of the criminal to break the laws for which there is no acceptable justification or excuse. Society is often viewed by its criminal element and how the people deal with punishment and rehabilitation of the criminal. There are five goals of the criminal justice system deterrence, incapacitation, retribution, rehabilitation, restoration. In a CJi Interactive Multi-Media slide on University of Phoenix website it described, “These five criminal justice goals are not mutually exclusive. They are really rather like philosophical perspectives from which a community or agency responds to criminal behavior. (Interactive) The criminal justice system has three branches, those branches are police, courts and correction departments, each are an integral part of the American Justice System. The police work in an ever changing environment however in a report on the challenges of crime in a free society the police officers job was described as “the manner in which a policeman works is influenced by practical matters: the legal strength of the available evidence, the willingness of victims to press charges and of witnesses to testify, the temper of the community, the time and information at the policeman's disposal. Much is at stake in how the policeman exercises this discretion and if he judges conduct not......

Words: 1030 - Pages: 5

As Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

...Crime Prevention and Theory, Such as Crime Prevention through Environmental Design and other Preventive Programs University of Phoenix Survey of Justice and Security AJS/502 October 28, 2013 Crime Prevention and Theory, Such as Crime Prevention through Environmental Design and other Preventive Programs Criminal activity is not unplanned; it is either deliberate or opportunistic. Rendering to this philosophy, crime occurs when the activity area of a victim or objective crisscrosses within the activity area of a criminal. As crime rises a mass number of cities are requiring the implementation of crime prevention structures in the design of firsthand essential projects. Community crime prevention programs or strategies target changes in community infrastructure, culture, or the physical environment in order to reduce criminal acts. In a vast majority of cities the mythology of crime prevention embrace community watch organizations and policing, redevelopment of communities to pursue the involvement of residents, neighborhoods, churches and regional government organizations thus addressing the issues that contribute to criminal activities. One such organization is the National Crime Prevention Council which has made providing a multitude of preventive programs that include: Teens, Crime and the Community, McGruff Club, Celebrate Safe Communities among others to assist in addressing the needs and concerns of local communities. Although these programs are......

Words: 905 - Pages: 4

Environmental Crime

...Running head: ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME - WHAT CAN BE DONE? Environmental Crime - What can be done? What comes to mind when one hears the date March 23rd, 1989? Could it be a loved one’s birthday or the date of someone’s death? Maybe the date is a special date because it is the day you or someone you know got married. All of these could be correct; however March 23rd, 1989 is also the date that began one of the worst environmental crimes in history. On this date, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled 10.8 million gallons of unrefined Alaskan crude oil into the sea off the coast of the Prince William Sound. Thousands of animals died immediately, of that included an estimated 250,000 '' 500,000 seabirds, 2,800 - 5,000 sea otters, as well as the destruction of billions of salmon and herring eggs. In addition to the loss of wildlife, the residents of Prince William Sound lost their livelihoods because of the spill. Yes, until that date, the United States paid little attention to protecting the environment or the consequences of environmental crime. In fact, for the first half of the 20th century, Americans simply believed the environment and its resources were to be used to build a mighty industrial nation with large cities and also to create the world’s most productive agricultural system. Environmental crime has become a serious issue and problem in the United States. This is true despite the fact that the immediate consequences of environmental crimes may not be as......

Words: 363 - Pages: 2

Crime

...are used to measure crime in the United States? The U.S. Department of Justice administers two statistical programs to measure the magnitude, nature, and impact of crime in the Nation: the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). Each of these programs produces valuable information about aspects of the Nation’s crime problem. Because the UCR and NCVS programs are conducted for different purposes, use different methods, and focus on somewhat different aspects of crime, the information they produce together provides a more comprehensive panorama of the Nation’s crime problem than either could produce alone. What are crime rates, arrest rates, clearance rates, and recidivism rates? Recidivism is measured by criminal acts that resulted in the rearrested, reconviction, or return to prison with or without a new sentence during a three-year period following the prisoner's release. Crime Rates several methods for measuring crime exist, including household surveys, hospital or insurance records, and compilations by police and similar law enforcement agencies. Typically official crime statistics are the latter, but some offences are likely to go unreported to the police. Public surveys are sometimes conducted to estimate the amount of crime not reported to police. Such surveys are usually more reliable for assessing trends. Public surveys rarely encompass all crime, rarely procure statistics useful for local crime prevention,......

Words: 329 - Pages: 2

Crime

...Personal Perception of Organized Crime Shawn Ramsey CJA/384 Criminal Organizations Damian Torres April 14, 2014 Criminal Organizations Organized crime is often described similarity by groups like government, the press and popular opinion. This similar definition is described through the knowledge people have gained from pop-culture movies, television shows, magazines, novels and stories from newspaper articles. “It is extremely rare in today's society that someone who has an opinion on organized crime, which is almost everyone, has gained this opinion through first-hand experience” (Lyman, M. D., & Potter, G. W. 2007). The problem with this narrow view of organized crime is that it fails to encompass the real issues/problems that truly define organized crime, therefore not allowing us as a society to fix the problems of and associated with organized crime. Stereotypes that have been made about organized crime through these pop-culture icons must be addressed and challenged by researchers as they aim to fix the definition of organized crime in the minds of the public, press, and government. Fixing society's understanding of organized crime is, as we have learned, the first and possibly most important step in controlling organized crime in our society. “The view of organized crime including acts such as, international drug smuggling, for example, is organized crime often being described as a; highly structured and organized operation with vertical lines of......

Words: 1125 - Pages: 5

Environmental

...|Environmental Research | | | |Natural Science 1 | | | |1/29/2015 | | | |April S. Domingo 1st Year BSBA Economics | | | | | |Atty. Vicente T. Peña | Environmental pollution is “the contamination of the physical and biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely affected” Pollution is the......

Words: 13986 - Pages: 56

Crime

...Controlling Organized Crime Paper LaShanda McMahon 1/26/15 CJA/384 Professor Faggione Controlling Organized Crime Paper Crime is a part of every type of society. It would be naïve to believe that a society could completely rid itself of crime, as long as there are people in the world crimes will be commited. Crime is based on the perception and the actions of individuals. Some see their actions as good and some see them as bad. The problem with this is that sometimes the perception of those committing negative acts that society views as crimes do not see their actions as criminal. Crime is based on the actions of the individuals and depending upon the moral statutes that the society has brought upon them the society deems what is criminal by what they perceive and have implemented as illegal. In this paper an attempt to identify the problems, which are obtainable, and the innumerable associations recognized through organized crime will be established. We will attempt to designate the legitimate boundaries correlated with contesting organized crime, involving an analysis of the general national laws and stratagems that sustenance this exertion. We will also attempt to propose a convincing clarification regarding controlled organized crime by examining and assessing the efficiency of organized crime examinations. Although most issues related to social control or moral regulation have a political aspect to them, discussions related to ‘organized crime’ are......

Words: 1072 - Pages: 5

Environmental Crime and Perspectives

...One of the main misunderstandings in environmental crime is the lack of consistency in the definition and classification of environmental crime. The primary problem is differing perspectives as to what constitutes as environmental crime, embedded in moral, philosophical and legalistic interpretations of harm and in what circumstances does this harm becomes a crime (White, 2008). Many criminologists have put forth perspectives which explain the reasons why individuals and corporations engage in activities that cause environmental harms. These perspectives can be linked to the original environmental or green criminology perspectives. Pollution and dumping has become an increasingly costly problem for the environment. As a results, there has been a rise in criminology literature that analyses environmental harms as crimes (Crofts, Morris, Wells & Powell, 2010). Pollution entail the emission, leakage or spillage of a prescribed substance into the air, water or soil (Brickenll, 2010). It was the first environmentally damaging practice to capture the attention of the public and also concern regulatory attention. Pollutants recognised include pesticides, chemicals and gases. Whilst some of these emissions are banned and illegal, some are permitted, but only within specified levels. Pollution is thus illegal when there is a release of a prohibited substance, the emission or leakage of substance in excess of an established limit, or expulsion into areas such as vast bodies......

Words: 2414 - Pages: 10

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

...The Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Crime prevention through environmental design is defined by the Bureau of Justice Assistance as “the strategies implemented to directly modify the environment to take advantage of pre-existing environmental assets or change the features of particular targets or areas to reduce crime” (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2014). When taking observance of crime prevention and the environmental design there were many factors involved in the process. The factor covered in the following paragraphs is human environment relationships. Human Environment Relationships There are a few aspects that make up the environment that in return correlates human behavior. These aspects are environmental cues, territory, landscape, and visual bubbles. By compiling an analysis of these different relations, criminal justice professionals are able to better solve and reduce crime in different areas. For example, here in Columbia, South Carolina some neighborhoods and school districts have more patrolling on highways and neighborhoods than others. This is due to the analysis of crime that has occurred in those areas more frequently than others. Some neighborhoods have more opportunities for criminals to conduct crime than others. These opportunities are also referred to as environmental cues. Several things can reflect the level of opportunity in areas such as poverty, age groups, race, and the ratio of law enforcement to population. In these areas......

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Crime

... nature, and impact of crime in the Nation: the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). Each of these programs produces valuable information about aspects of the Nation’s crime problem. Because the UCR and NCVS programs are conducted for different purposes, use different methods, and focus on somewhat different aspects of crime, the information they produce together provides a more comprehensive panorama of the Nation’s crime problem than either could produce alone. The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) began publishing information for the UCR Program in 1929, just two years after the IACP had established a committee to research the uniform reporting of crime statistics. Since September 1930, the FBI has administered the program and currently collects information on the following crimes: murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. Law enforcement agencies report arrest data for 21 additional crime categories. The UCR Program compiles data from monthly law enforcement reports or individual crime incident records transmitted directly to the FBI or to centralized state agencies that then report to the FBI. The program thoroughly examines each report it receives for reasonableness, accuracy, and deviations that may indicate errors. Large variations in crime levels may indicate......

Words: 417 - Pages: 2

Crime Through Environmental Design

...bnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm Crime Prevention Concepts and Theory Crime Prevention through Environmental Design 2/2/2012 Rochelle L. Ellis AJS/502 Professor Richard Teresi | Crime Prevention is defined as the anticipation, recognition and appraisal of a crime risk and he initiation off some action to remove or reduce it. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design takes crime prevention a step further. It studies the site design and works with the development that community and public agencies are attempting to create for safer designs for future and existing developments. The Code of Hammurabi is the earliest written laws of justice. Having been written in 2000 B.C. the Code of Hammurabi was designed to bring together both secular and religious proscriptions in an attempt to standardize punishments for wrongdoings. The Code of Hammurabi is broken down into 282 different “codes of law” and is a large mixture of capital punishment and punitive damages in return for a variety of crimes committed. [ (History, 2008) ] There are several crime prevention methods, the one I chose to discuss in this writing is; Situational Crime Prevention. Situational Crime prevention is achieved by eliminating the opportunity people have to commit crime. In this method people are aware of the characteristics of sites and situations that are at risk to crime. People then take inventory of things that draw people to these sites and situations...

Words: 590 - Pages: 3

Environmental Crime

...Running Head: Environmental Crime Environmental Crime [Name] [School] In partial fulfillment of the requirements for [subject] [Professor] [Date] ABSTRACT Environmental Crime is a very serious crime not only to the present society but also to the next generation of humans, animals and plants. This is a serious matter that affects the whole plant. This research paper discusses the definition of environmental crime, a few examples of companies that had committed environmental crime, environmental laws and crime punishment of the companies who had committed these crimes. Definition of Environmental Crime Environmental Crime is very hard to define. Some people say that it is a white collar crime, to others it is not just simply a white collar crime but it can be considered as crime against society. Whit Gibbons (2001) had shown two types of environmental crime in his article. First type is an individual such as an ordinary person dumping waste to the river and the other type is the white-collared type where companies dump harmful contaminants to a water source or the air. The main difference of the two according to Gibbons (2001) is that it is easier to prosecute an individual than a business corporation. The sad part is the business corporations who commit environmental crimes affects the environment more than an individual. He had treated the business corporation offenders as white-collar criminals and as such defined it...

Words: 2177 - Pages: 9