Food Security Issue

In: Social Issues

Submitted By DarkBoss
Words 8979
Pages 36
Fedoroff Agric & Food Secur (2015) 4:11
DOI 10.1186/s40066-015-0031-7

Open Access

REVIEW

Food in a future of 10 billion
Nina V Fedoroff*

Abstract
Over the past two centuries, the human population has grown sevenfold and the experts anticipate the addition of
2–3 billion more during the twenty-first century. In the present overview, I take a historical glance at how humans supported such extraordinary population growth first through the invention of agriculture and more recently through the rapid deployment of scientific and technological advances in agriculture. I then identify future challenges posed by continued population growth and climate warming on a finite planet. I end by discussing both how we can meet such challenges and what stands in the way.
Keywords: Population growth, Agriculture, Domestication, Genetic modification, Technology
Background
Today we have enough food to meet the world’s needs.
Indeed, we have an extraordinary global food system that brings food from all over the planet to consumers who can afford to buy it. The food price spike of 2008 and the resurgence of high food prices in recent years have had little impact on the affluent citizens of the developed world who spend a small fraction of their income on food. By contrast, food prices have a profound impact on the world’s poorest people. Many of them spend half or more of their income on food. During the food price crisis of 2008, there were food riots in more than 30 countries. Unrest in the Middle East and
North Africa tracks with the price of food, as is dramatically illustrated in Fig. 1. Spiraling food prices drive the world’s poorest into chronic hunger even in a world of relative plenty.
Does this mean we need worry only about poverty, not about the global food supply, as suggested in a recent editorial by the influential New York Times food…...

Similar Documents

Food Security

...The term food security is often used by Global community; to describe two things viz. the availability of food and the ability to purchase it. Food security means a person should have a consistent supply of food and the ability to purchase it in sufficient quantities. A family is considered food secure when its members will not face hunger and starvation. Ensuring global food security will only become more challenging in the future as demand for food is projected to increase by 50 percent over next 20 yrs. It is said in the coming future it would be a challenge to ensure global food security, as it is foreseen that the demand for food will increase by 50% over the next 20 years. This increased demand will be primarily shape up the population and income growth in middle income countries. Growth in the agricultural productivity already is globally lagging. Agricultural productivity will also face threats from climate change, scarce water supply and competition from energy resources from industry and urbanization. Climate change will result in fall in the rice yields which is anticipated to be more than 25 percent in most of the world’s poorest countries. This fall in the supply of rice will result in an additional 24 million children to suffer from under nourishment. Poverty leads to malnutrition, people who are poor often cannot afford to buy their basic food requirement. Hungry families expend over half their income to buy just the food they need to survive....

Words: 250 - Pages: 1

Security Issues

...|[pic] |Syllabus | | |College of Information Systems & Technology | | |CMGT/582 | | |Security & Ethics | Copyright © 2010, 2009 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Course Description The ethical issues examined in the course include information privacy, accessibility, and ownership from an organizational perspective. Information laws, regulations, and compliance requirements are examined in this course as well as the considerations for creating a safe digital environment within the organization. Policies Faculty and students or learners will be held responsible for understanding and adhering to all policies contained within this syllabus and the following two additional documents: University policies: You must be logged into the student website to view this document. Instructor policies: This document is posted in the Course Materials forum. University policies are subject to change. Be sure to read the policies at the beginning of each class.......

Words: 2637 - Pages: 11

Food Security

...Essential Services Food Security in India: Performance, Challenges and Policies S. Mahendra Dev Alakh N. Sharma Oxfam India working papers series September 2010 OIWPS - VII Abstract This paper examines performance, challenges, and policies in food security in terms of availability, access, and absorption or nutrition. Specifically, the paper addresses the following questions: (i) What is the progress in supply side of food in terms of availability at the national level? (ii) How far has India progressed in attaining access to food and nutrition requirements at the household level? (iii) What are the programmes and policies that India has followed in realizing food and nutrition security? (iv) What should be done to realize food and nutrition security for all citizens of India? Food availability is a necessary condition for food security. India is more or less self sufficient in cereals but deficit in pulses and oilseeds. Due to changes in consumption patterns, demand for fruits, vegetables, dairy, meat, poultry, and fisheries has been increasing. There is need to increase crop diversification and improve allied activities. It may be noted that the slowdown in agriculture growth could be attributed to structural factors on the supply side, such as public investment, credit, technology, land and water management, etc., rather than globalization and trade reforms per se. Access to food can be increased through employment due to growth in labour intensive sectors......

Words: 17776 - Pages: 72

Food Issue

...I. INTRODUCTION: Living in this ever changing environment always gives us new knowledge about certain things. Technologies upgrades every second. New stores opened. New foods are being introduce to people. So to be able to cope up with this, people change their lifestyle. Since most of us are in a rush, we sometimes decide quickly without thinking about the possibilities it may cause us. Now, people live in a modern way. Due of their busy working schedules they often choose fast foods because it’s cheaper and easy to prepare. That’s not all, inventions like cellphones and computers are the trends for faster communication, and some use their cars for convenience even if their destination is just a walking distance. Doing this may cause us to be mostly sedentary and weak because of lack in physical activities. You see, the problem is we can be more prone to overweight because of our daily lifestyle and living in an urbanized society where in all the bad foods, hi-tech gadgets and vices are in. Based on the National Nutrition Survey last 2008, most of the overweight among adults that aged 20 years and above are in Metro, Manila with 32.2%. We all know that overweight and obesity are one of the serious problems that even other countries are experiencing. Take note, it is the fifth leading risk to global death. For us individuals this signifies that we need to change our daily lifestyle. That we need to become more aware of what we are eating, doing and taking. We need...

Words: 1711 - Pages: 7

Food Security

...Importance Food security will be helpful if enough food is available for all the persons, there is no barrier to access of food and all persons have the capacity to buy food of acceptable quality. Food availaabilty is a necessary condtion for food security. India is more or less self sufficient in cereals but deficit in pulses and oil seeds. Due to changes in consumption patterns, demand for fruits, vegetables, dairy, meat, poultry, and 38 fishery products has been increasing. There is a need to increase crop diversification and improve allied activities. It may be noted that the slowdown in agriculture growth could be attributed to structural factors on the supply side, such as public investment, credit, technology, land and water management, etc., rather than globalization and trade reforms per se. There are six deficits in Indian agriculture. These are: (i) investment, credit, and infrastructure deficit; (ii) land and water management deficit; (iii) research and extension (technology) deficit; (iv) market deficit; (v) diversification deficit; and (vi) institutions deficit. Reforms are needed to reduce these deficits in order to achieve the following goals of agriculture: (i) 4 per cent growth in agriculture; (ii) equity in terms of higher growth in lagging regions, small and marginal farmers, and women; and (iii) sustainability. Access to food can be increased through employment due to growth in labour intensive sectors and/or through social protection programmes. The...

Words: 1419 - Pages: 6

Food Security

...Summary of the National Food Security Bill 2013 (revised version, as tabled in Parliament, 22 March 2013) 1. Preliminaries The Bill seeks “to provide for food and nutritional security in human life cycle approach, by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices to people to live a life with dignity and for matters connected therwith and incidental thereto”. It extends to the whole of India and “shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette appoint, and different dates may be appointed for different States and different provisions of this Act”. 2. Entitlements Public Distribution System (TPDS) Priority households are entitled to 5 kgs of foodgrains per person per month, and Antyodaya households to 35 kgs per household per month. The combined coverage of Priority and Antyodaya households (called “eligible households”) shall extend “up to 75% of the rural population and up to 50% of the urban population”. The PDS issue prices are given in Schedule I: Rs 3/2/1 for rice/wheat/millets (actually called “coarse grains” in the Bill). These may be revised after three years. Children’s Entitlements For children in the age group of 6 months to 6 years, the Bill guarantees an age-appropriate meal, free of charge, through the local anganwadi. For children aged 6-14 years, one free mid-day meal shall be provided every day (except on school holidays) in all schools run by local bodies, government and......

Words: 1380 - Pages: 6

Food Security

...Food Security Almost half of the world's population, which exceeds over 3 billion people, struggle to find food. It is apparent that the world is facing many food security problems, this report identifies the meaning of food security and discusses the reasons behind this globally widespread problem; throughout the report a supportive survey results were be used. Food security is not a new expression; however according to the survey 4 out of 10 people are not aware of it, there are numerous definitions of food security, for instance it can be defined as “the existence of the necessary conditions for human beings to have physical and economic access, in socially acceptable ways.” (IICA, 2009) The food security problem arises from day to day, many people do not realise the danger of this issue and its impact, for example 80% of people who claim that they care about this issue do not know what the proper solution is, to address this problem; the question that should be asked is”Who and what is responsible?” in the survey; 88% of the respondents say that governments are responsible for this issue, while only 12% believe that citizens hold the responsibility, this could be explained by assuming that citizens are incapable of participating in determining effective solutions. However, it is fair to say that governments are partly responsible for the aggravation of this issue, but in reality there are so many natural causes behind the deterioration. One of the causes is climate......

Words: 495 - Pages: 2

Security Issues

...Front office and guest safety and security Security Issues ---------------------- Security encompasses areas such as security of the property itself, company assets, employees' and customers' personal belongings and valuables, life security, personal security etc.    In all workplaces management stipulates that it is not responsible for valuables and employees personal belongings (their handbags, items kept in the personal lockers, etc.).  Yet management must take all possible measures to prevent theft among employees and of employee belongings through its hiring practices and through the implementation of effective management, human resources and operational policies, such as:   • Background checks of selected applicants • Policies related to employees' entry to, and exit from, the workplace • Spot checks of locker rooms and lockers • Effective supervision and control during the work cycle • Policies related to the discovery of criminal records and wrongdoing among, and by,  employees • Control of people entering and exiting the workplace With regard to guest valuables, management informs guests that the hotel is not responsible for valuables left in the room, advising them to secure these in safety deposit boxes provided by the hotel.  Besides taking care of security issues related to the people they employ (as outlined above), management must undertake some necessary measures, among which: • Providing "secure" (safety) deposit......

Words: 4569 - Pages: 19

Food Security

...expanding feed and food export markets; generating beneficial knowledge, information and technologies for adapting to and mitigating climate change; improving natural resource management; helping protect U.S. food and non-food crops, agricultural animals and ecosystems from the threat of exotic pests and diseases, as well as emerging and re-emerging domestic diseases and pests; and improving the quality and safety of domestic and imported food products. Extending US knowledge and expertise to enhance agricultural development in the developing world contributes not only to their food security but also directly benefits the U.S. economy and improves domestic knowledge on a range of topics. In fact, by linking all relevant disciplines of the U.S. university system domestically and internationally on food security issues, students will become more competent, knowledgeable, and better prepared for managing the global aspects of the future world of agriculture in which they will work. As of May 2012, the world’s population is estimated to be over 7 billion and is expected to increase to over 9 billion by 2050 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). Currently, nearly one billion people globally are estimated to be food insecure, with 44 percent residing in Sub-Saharan Africa (Shapouri et al., 2010). In addition, many suffer from micronutrient deficiency, such as iron and Vitamin A deficiencies, which contributes to their overall health burden. Projections predict that food security will remain......

Words: 503 - Pages: 3

Food Security

...IMPLICATIONS OF NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY ACT,2013 SUB-THEME: Economic implications of National Food Security Act, 2013 and its international trade impacts I. Impact of 2013 Act on exports and how supply will meet demand created. II. The comparison between “livelihood security “and “food security legislation.” III. Economic implications of adopting a „rights based approach‟ through the 2013 Act. AUTHORS: URVASHI BANSAL STUDENT AMITY LAW SCHOOL,NOIDA CONTACT DETAILS: MOBILE: 08130158915 E-MAIL: urvashisurabhi12@gmail.com AKANKSHA KAPUR STUDENT AMITY LAW SCHOOL,NOIDA CONTACT DETAILS: MOBILE: 08510042250 E-MAIL: akanshakapur0@gmail.com CERTIFICATE The research paper entitled ―Economic implications of National Food Security Act, 2013 and its international trade impacts” submitted for the conference on INTERNATIONAL TRADE IMPLICATIONS OF NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY ACT,2013 is based on my original work. The research work has not been submitted elsewhere for award of any degree. The material borrowed from other sources and incorporated in the thesis has been duly acknowledged. I understand that I myself could be held responsible and accountable for plagiarism, if any, detected later on. ABSTRACT The research paper presented before you investigates the Economic Implications of The National Food Security Act, 2013 proposed by the government. This Bill aims to provide food and nutritional security to whole of India; access to adequate quality food at affordable......

Words: 7150 - Pages: 29

Security Issues

...Onboard Systems Security Issues Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University On-board Systems There are many benefits and there are also some security concerns that need to be addressed when talking about common networks that are used on board an airplane or in this case a passenger plane. These systems can be affected in many different ways which could really cause some problems for the airline and even for the passengers themselves. However, if all of the necessary safeguards are put into place, then nobody should have to worry about whether their network is safe or if it is at risk. The benefits for using a common network are pretty straightforward when you look at it. All of the passengers are able to connect to one solitary network therefore reducing the need for more networks and having connectivity issues while in the air. However, if you have the air traffic controllers and the pilots using the same network as the passengers to maintain the aircraft, then you potentially have a lot of issues if not handled the correct way. According to Kim Zetter, there was an incident that Boeing was involved in and they had a special condition given to them by the FAA that allowed a Boeing 787 to “connect a passenger internet network with networks that control the plane's navigation and maintenance systems (Zetter 2008).” I cannot even begin to describe how dangerous that is regardless of whether you have the correct safeguards in place that do not allow passengers to have......

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

Food Security

...Food Security “There is no sincerer love than the love of food,” George Bernard Shaw a literary critic once said. His statement rings true, as food feeds the functions of society. However, not all countries feel the cushion of a full meal each day. Every year 15 million children die from hunger. Scarcity of food is an epidemic affecting people all over the world. Therefore, food security, the access by which all people at any time can have access to enough nutritious food for an individual to have a healthy life, is a vital part of a countries concern. Nigeria is one such country, like many others in which food security is of high concern. No longer a third world country, as of 2005, Nigeria has been declared a middle class country and continues to develop from there. However, this does not make Nigeria exempt from the brutality of hunger and the shortage of food. Officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Nigeria is a country located in West Africa with its borders being surrounded by Chad, Benin, Cameroon and Niger. Nigeria is the most populated country in Africa and the seventh most populated in the entire world. Naturally, with such a high population the amount and production of food is a large concern for the government. As stated by Olyeran-Oyeyinkain the book, The Gene Revolution and Global Food Security, “Agriculture has become a major contributor to the Nigeria's economy. Accounting for about 40% of gross domestic product (GDP) and employing about 60% of......

Words: 320 - Pages: 2

Food Security in North Carolina

... LITERATURE REVIEW The concept of food security refers to a situation in which there is access to adequate and nutritionally quality food through socially acceptable means. The concept of food security comprises of four different domains: qualitative, quantitative, psychological and social. The quantitative aspect refers to the lack of adequate food for the households. The situation leads to a person or household having to eat less than what they would prefer to consume (Taylor and Francis, 2015). The qualitative aspect of food security entails access to food of preferred nutritional value depending on the age or health requirements. The Psychological domain of food security denotes the anxiety and worry that people tend to exhibit when the food situation in the country is unpredictable. Its other facet is the concern over the absence of the preferred quality of food (Edward et al., 2013). The social aspect entails the socially approved ways people use to access for their consumption. These could include buying on credit, borrowing or even some socially unacceptable means such as stealing. Several types of researches done on the issue of food security consider it from the mothers’ perspectives. It is in conformity with their traditional roles of engaging in acquisition and management of household food reserves. The tool used in the determination of food security is the U.S Household Food Security Survey Module, HFSSM. The toll was devised in 1997. The model......

Words: 1380 - Pages: 6

Food Security

...FOOD SECURITY IN INDIA:ISSUES AND PROBLEMS | | Contents FOOD SECURITY - INTRODUCTION 2 Pillars of food security 2 The Status and Trends in Food Production and Availability 3 PRODUCTION AND YIELD OF MAJOR AGRI-HORTI COMMODITIES 3 FOOD DEMAND IN INDIA: 4 CONSUMPTION OF FOOD IN INDIA: 5 Food Problem: 6 Introduction: 6 Some of the major causes responsible for the food problem 6 Other Cause of food shortage of India are: 7 How to solve the food problem of India: 7 Availability of food 8 Major Factors Responsible for Decline in Food Production 8 Whether India Get Proper Food? 10 Issues faced in India 10 Recommendations 11 References 13 FOOD SECURITY - INTRODUCTION At the World Food Summit‟ 1974 food security is defined as, “Availability at all times of adequate world food supplies of basic foodstuffs to sustain a steady expansion of food consumption and to offset fluctuations in production and prices”. The National Development Council (NDC) in its 53rd meeting held on 29th May, 2007 adopted a resolution to launch a Food Security Mission comprising rice, wheat and pulses to increase the production of rice by 10 million tons, wheat by 8 million tons and pulses by 2 million tons by the end of the Eleventh Plan (2011-12). Accordingly, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, 'National Food Security Mission' (NFSM), was launched in October 2007. The Mission is being continued during 12th Five Year Plan with new targets of additional production of food grains of 25...

Words: 3874 - Pages: 16

Food Security

...What is Food Security? Food Security refers to a household's physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that fulfills the dietary needs and food preferences of that household for living an active and healthy life. As per the combined interpretations of The World Health Organisation and The Food and Agriculture Organisation, Food security is defined by the following 4 paradigms: Ensuring Availability Ensuring Access Ensuring Utilization Ensuring Stability Availability is having available sufficient quantities of food on a consistent basis. Food access is having sufficient resources, both economic and physical, to obtain appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. Food use is the appropriate use based on knowledge of basic nutrition and care, as well as adequate water and sanitation. The Food and Agriculture Organisation adds a fourth facet: the stability of the first three dimensions of food security over time. Food Security Act: Food Security is achieved not only by augmenting food supply but also by implementing institutional reforms, social policies, and programmes to improve economic and social access to food and provision of basic services for nutritional absorption. There is considerble diversity in country performance and experiences in terms of the timing, pace and degree of economic and institutional reforms, and multiplicity of approaches and instruments used to increase economic access to food and......

Words: 436 - Pages: 2