Fractional Distillation

In: Science

Submitted By marissaleighzee
Words 1193
Pages 5
Abstract
Fractional distillation was used to separate an ethanol mixture and determine the percent of ethanol. A fractional distillation apparatus with copper turnings in the fractionating column was used to separate the ethanol mixture. The mixture was heated to a boil (78.1*C) and began to drip distillate into the receiving flask. A sample of the distillate was taken and a pipet was used to measure out 1 mL of the substance. The weight of the 1 mL was determined to be 0.82grams. The density of the sample was calculated at 0.82g/mL of ethanol. The percentage of ethanol solved to be 85% ethanol.
Introduction
The purpose of this experiment was to identify the unknown percentage of ethanol in the ethanol mixture. Fractional distillation was used to separate the ethanol mixture into two components. The copper turnings in the fractional distillation column allowed for the vapors from the boiling mixture to be repeatedly filtered through the system. The repeating of the vapor process is what allows for separation of two components in a mixture with close boiling points. By separating the mixture between precise boiling points and then collecting a sample of the distillate from the round bottom receiving flask to weigh, the density can be determined. With the density known the ethanol percentage can be easily determined with table on page 129, (Pavia, Small Scale Approach to Laboratory techniques).

Results
To determine the percent of the ethanol in the mixture, a sample of the distillate was taken after the two components of the mixture had separated. This sample was then measured to 1 mL with a pipet and weighed. The weight of the 1 mL of distillate was 0.82 grams. With the equation (density=mass/volume) the density was determined to be 0.82 mL/g. By use of the chart on page 129 (Pavia, Small Scale Approach to Laboratory Techniques). With the…...

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