Gene Therapy Argumentative

In: Science

Submitted By zbwynkoo43
Words 2840
Pages 12
Zene Wynkoop

Professor Subbarao

ENG-1520

10 April, 2015

Title?

Thesis:
While somatic cell gene therapy brings many advantages to the treatment of diseases and the quality of life, using germ-line gene therapy with the opportunities to genetically improve, alter, or fabricate human beings is unethical and should not be researched.

Imagine this: You just got back from your germ-line procedure to alter your genes for brown hair and green eyes because you didn't want to pass them on to your children. Everyone is saying that having brown hair and green eyes is unattractive now and they're unwanted traits for future generations. Three months later the “fad” changes and people begin to think that having green eyes won't be so bad after all and that they're actually unique. Now you're left with passing on the Version 1.0 gene pool to your children while everyone else who waited could have children with green eyes. This is the future of germ-line gene therapy. Do we really want to live in a world where this is allowed? The thought of people changing their genes just to fit in and be desirable is unimaginable. While somatic cell gene therapy brings many advantages in the treatment of diseases and the quality of life, using germ-line gene therapy with the opportunities to genetically improve, alter, or fabricate human beings is unethical and should not be researched. Gene therapy is an exciting and new experimental medical procedure that replaces or deletes specific genes in our bodies to either treat or prevent disease. By introducing new genetic material into human cells (ie. cancer cells), gene therapy treatment then creates the necessary proteins that allow the affected cell to become healthy ("Gene Therapy and Genetic Engineering"). Gene therapy can also be used as an alternative to other medical disorders rather than having a surgical procedure or…...

Similar Documents

Gene Therapy Target Cystic Fibrosis

...channel.4,5 The vast majority of mutations involve three or fewer nucleotides and result in primarily amino acid substitutions, frameshifts, splice site, or nonsense mutations.11 Of more than 800 identified CFTR mutations, the 3 base pair deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 is found worldwide in 70% of cystic fibrosis sufferers, therefore making F508 CFTR the most common deadly mutant in the Caucasian populations.6 Since cystic fibrosis has a genetic origin the opportunity to treat by replacing the defective gene with a normal healthy gene (gene therapy) offers a ‘novel therapeutic approach’ for sufferers.7 The estimated survival age of cystic fibrosis sufferers is 33.4 years (Fig 1). In this essay we will discuss the aetiology and symptoms of cystic fibrosis and the current available treatments, with particular emphasis on gene therapy and furanones, which prevent the build up of bacterial biofilms and thus reduce lung infection. Mutations in the CF gene can disrupt CFTR function within epithelial cells in different ways, ranging from complete loss of protein to surface expression with poor chloride conductance.12 The five major mechanisms by which CFTR function is altered are summarized in Figure 2. Class one mutations produce premature transcription termination signals resulting in unstable, truncated, or no protein expression. Class two mutations, including F508, cause the protein to fold incorrectly leading to premature degradation and failure to......

Words: 2257 - Pages: 10

Moral and Ethical Issues in Gene Therapy

...[pic] Moral and Ethical Issues in Gene Therapy • Dr • [pic] Introduction Genetic research has advanced in a dramatic fashion in the last decade or so, to the point where it has now become possible to attempt therapeutic genetic modification, in a few cases of human genes, where a defects exists which manifests itself in certain serious diseases. This possibility, known as gene therapy, is only in its infancy. At present, no one knows how effective it will prove to be, even in the few conditions on which it is being tried - whether it will only be of relatively limited application, or whether it will open up many wider possibilities. It suffers both over-optimistic claims from some quarters and exaggerated dangers from others, over which the church needs to be discerning. It is, of course, not possible to assert exactly where the possibilities opened up by today's technology will lead in terms of future developments, but various ethical and moral issues are implicit in the technology which it is important to draw to the Church's attention, so that it is forearmed in an area where developments have been taking place at a bewildering pace. An editorial in the "New Scientist" in April 1994 drew attention to the need to weigh up what may still be future issues today, before the technological "horse" bolts from the stable and it is too late to lock the door. Potential Ethical Issues Perhaps the most basic underlying questions centre on a Christian......

Words: 6555 - Pages: 27

Gene Knockout

...INTRODUCTION The Secrets Behind Gene Knockout Technology Presently, knockout gene technology or gene knockout technology (abbreviation: KO) allows experimenters to inactivate specific genes within an organism and determine the effect of this on the functioning of the organism. Also, they are used in learning about a gene that has been sequenced, but which has unknown or incompletely known function. Genes can be knocked out in microorganisms as well as organisms of greater complexity, such as mosquitoes, flies, and worms. However, the mouse is perhaps the most important species in which researchers can now use in this technology because of two reasons: (1) the mouse is the most genetically manipulated mammal in the world and (2) it shares much of its genetic material with humans (and other mammals) which means that experimental findings in mice will often be directly relevant to conditions in humans. The paper focuses on the controversies and challenges in Gene Knockout Technology – an article/blog entitled “Sickle Cell Disease cured by Gene Knock-out”. Switching off a single gene can help treat sickle cell disease or sickle cell anemia (a chronic, usually fatal anemia marked by sickle-shaped red blood cells, occurring almost exclusively in Black people of Africa or of African descent, and characterized by episodic pain in the joints, fever, leg ulcers, and jaundice. The disease occurs in individuals who are homozygous for a mutant hemoglobin gene) by keeping the......

Words: 1516 - Pages: 7

Argumentative

...Argumentative Essay 9/4/13 Now days, thin bodies are the standards of beauty. Not only females but also males pursue to be thin and to lose weight. A lot of motivations and volitions are required to lose weight. It is a game that you fight yourself as Karl Lagerfield (2009) quoted, “Dieting is the only game where you win when you lose”. Countless ways to lose weight have been discovered such as eating no foods or one food daily, but the scientists proved that exercising is the only and best way to lose weight. Having a few, irregular, and unbalanced meals will quickly help you to lose weight; however, this will affect human’s life negatively. Having few, irregular, and unbalanced meals will quickly help you to lose weight. If human eat few and unbalanced meals, we will be provided few nutrition. This will allow our body not to produce fats. If the body produces no fats, the stored ones in our body will be quickly burned. Then, it will result to fast way of losing weight. This is the most used methods when the ladies want to lose their weight. The author also lost her weight about 5 kg in 7 days through just eating some snacks or small sandwiches. “I want to lose weight by eating nothing but moon pies, which have significantly less gravity than earthier foods such as fruits and vegetables.” (Kints, 2010) However, this will affect human negatively. First, people’s body will be easily exhausted due to few meals. One of the sources of energy for human is fats. As it is......

Words: 689 - Pages: 3

Gene Therapy

...Assignment 2: Gene Therapy Science 115 – Introduction to Biology March 1, 2014 Gene therapy is the transplantation of normal genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones in order to correct genetic disorders (Genetics home reference, n.d). This is a promising treatment for diseases such as inherited disorders, some types of cancer, and certain viral infections. The way this treatment works is by introducing genetic material into cells to compensate for genes that are abnormal or are not making beneficial proteins. Mutated genes can cause a protein to be faulty or missing, so a new copy of the gene is introduced to proper function of the protein. This is still a very risky technique and is under study to make sure it will be safe and effective. Currently, it is only being used to treat diseases such as severe combined immunodeficiency—also referred to as SCID or boy-in-the-bubble syndrome—where patients are unable to fight infection and die in childhood (Scientific American, n.d). A further break down of the processes of gene therapy will help to understand exactly how to treatment works. A gene cannot be inserted directly into the cell or it will not function. A carrier called a vector has been genetically engineered to deliver the gene to the cell. This vector can be used in two ways: in-the-body gene therapy and out-of-the-body gene therapy. In-the-body therapy can be injected or given intravenously (through an IV) directly into a specific......

Words: 867 - Pages: 4

Argumentative

...be able to afford, for the sake of their little girls participating in a pageant that doesn't even show off their natural beauty.      When a girl is entered in a beauty pageant, she is on a strict schedule. Hair appointments, dress fittings, dance lessons. When do they have time to be a real girl? Where is the place in the schedule that says "Sleepover with X" or "Waterpark with Y"? Pageants can really take a toll on a girl's personality. According to noted psychologist and author Steve Biddulph, one in five girls "growing up in this kind of environment were suffering to some degree from anxiety manifesting as self-harm, eating disorders, binge drinking, bullying and risky sex," ("Stealing the Innocence of Children") According to a therapy website, most girls in beauty pageants experience crash dieting and as a result develop eating disorders ("Beauty Pageants and Children: It’s Not Always Pretty"). In 2012 it was noted that about 6% of girls in pageants suffer from severe depression.      Glitz pageants are by far the most popular type of pageant; but it is also the worst type. Just by watching the hit television show "Toddlers and Tiaras", you can see the complete transformation of a young girl into a "flawless" young woman. The show continues to air to millions of viewers the truth about beauty pageants; how "attention-starved mothers" go too far to win. In one episode, a mother dressed her three-year-old named Paisley up as Julia Roberts in Pretty Woman. This episode...

Words: 932 - Pages: 4

Gene Therapy

...Gene Therapy SCI115 Introduction to Biology Professor Cassie Prisco November 28, 2014 Gene therapy is a rapidly growing field of medicine in which genes are introduced into the body to treat diseases. It is the name applied to the treatment of inherited diseases by corrective genetic engineering of the dysfunctional genes. It is part of a broader field called genetic medicine, which involves the screening, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of hereditary conditions in humans. The results of genetic screening can pinpoint a potential problem to which gene therapy can sometimes offer a solution. Genes represent the genetic material that organisms pass on from generation to generation. Therefore, genes are responsible for controlling hereditary traits and provide the basic biological code or blueprint for living organisms. Genes produce protein such as hair and skin as well as proteins that are important for the proper functioning of organs. Mutated or defective genes often cause disease. The purpose of gene therapy is to replace a defective gene with a normal copy of the same gene in attempt to restore function. Initially conceived as an approach for treating inherited diseases, like cystic fibrosis and Huntington's disease, the scope of potential gene therapies has grown to include treatments for cancers, arthritis, and infectious diseases. Although gene therapy testing in humans has rapidly advanced, in general, the field of gene therapy has proven to be......

Words: 1478 - Pages: 6

Argumentative Essay

...John Wells English 112 25 February 2015 Many individuals would argue that there are many causes for depression. Before getting into some of the contributing factors, many statistics show us that depression is hereditary and if your mother and father suffered from depression, then you yourself may find that you are more likely to be diagnosed as well ( Berger, Joshua L. 5). Clinical depression, also known as major depression or depression is defined as a mood disorder that may occur only once in an individual’s lifetime or in groups of episodes that typically last anywhere from 9 to 16 months ( Berger, Joshua L. 8). Statistics show that depression is hereditary and can be passed down from generation to generation.. This is an argumentative topic that I feel must be brought into the open as not many people who suffer from it realize that they are actually going through it and just how serious it can be. Those who are fortunate to have people to talk to have an opportunity to help themselves, but there are many who do not even know of the existence of this illness. With this paper, I aim to show how depression differs from the sadness or gloom everyone goes through at some periods in their lives. Along with that, I also aim to argue that depression is not at all uncommon and as extraordinary as people feel and think it to be, as statistics argue that 1 out of 4 individuals will suffer from depression at some point in their life (Barglow, Peter, M.D. 12). Many would......

Words: 1951 - Pages: 8

Argumentative

...Final Draft due: Date of final exam Objective: Students choose an argumentative topic and write a 1000 word argumentative essay. An explanation of the topics students may choose is discussed below. This is a two-part assignment, including a review of sources and a first draft submission, and the final draft, both with a corresponding due date. For those unsure about a topic, you could consider one related to the very topics we have discussed this semester, including arguments related to higher education or poverty in America. The essay must contain at least 2 secondary sources (these are sources that you find via research) and a primary source, which will be either TS/IS or The NFG. These sources must be used as support for the claims students make. A separate works cited page is also required. It is strongly suggested that students use the databases provided by the library for research of secondary sources. Remember to refer to the Argument document posted on iCampus to review critical elements of argument, which include claims, qualifying/absolute language, and tips on tone of voice. The essay must be written in MLA format, and in-text citations must also follow MLA documentation. Use sources to back up, support, your claims rather than serve as claims or main points themselves. Avoid over-quoting (perhaps once a body paragraph) and be sure to include counter-argument refutation. Topics: You may choose to argue for or against any of the topics......

Words: 446 - Pages: 2

Gene Therapy

... Assignment 2: Gene Therapy Brandi Williams Professor Mintesinot Jiru Introduction to Biology SCI 115 August 31, 2014 Gene Therapy Technology What is gene therapy? According to the "Genetics Home Reference", gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. Gene therapy has many factors that allows them to work or sometimes not. Below I will explain gene therapy's importance and how it works. Gene therapy is a treatment that involves altering the genes inside your body's cells to stop disease. (MayoClinic Staff) Also, gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new gene in an attempt to cure disease or improve the the body's ability to fight disease. Disease can be caused by the genes not working properly, but there's a wide range of disease including, cancer, cysyic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, hemophilia and AIDS, that gene therapy holds promise for treating. Also, researchers are still standing how and when to use gene therapy. (MayoClinic Staff) Social and ethical implications of gene therapy is complex and still has underlying concerns that need to be evaluated before being out on the market. Only through clinical trials gene therapy had been tested and successful, but because scientists and doctors not knowing the effectiveness of gene therapy; there are still precautions. For this reason, even though it may have been successful and beneficial for others, some mau not be as fortunate and that will cause another set of......

Words: 733 - Pages: 3

Argumentative Essay

...Madison Priest Argumentative Essays The Uncharted Territory of Designer Babies Suppose you just found out the good news that you’re pregnant. In less than nine months you’re going to be a mom or dad. Now suppose you have the opportunity to select what you’re newborn will look like. Do you want a boy or a girl? Would you prefer blonde or brunette hair? With technology rapidly advancing pretty soon you won’t have to hope. Instead you can sit down with your doctor and design your future child. Technology has had a remarkable effect on how we live our lives. Our generation has been labeled as lazy, technology obsessed, and many other stereotypes referring to our dependence on technology. Technology also has the ability to change the appearance and genetics of the next generation. An arising method of genetic engineering has the ability to genetically modify the DNA of a fetus to resemble specific traits. Initially, it may sound like a genius discovery. However, this procedure could change everything we know about our world. It goes against nature and can lead to severe problems. Genetic Engineering has the potential to benefit many people. New discoveries have been made to prevent autism and other disabilities that are detected before birth. Genetic modification is also what allows parents to determine many physical aspects of their future baby. Eye color, hair color, gender, height, skin tone, are just some characteristics that can be altered or enhanced through this......

Words: 824 - Pages: 4

Gene Threapy

...together, only DNA is the body’s manual for making you who you are. DNA exist in every living being not just humans. It is responsible for making all the structures and materials that our bodies need to function. Every individual has their own DNA that is not like anyone else’s. However, the cells of an individual contains the DNA, which most importantly is needed to create a unique make up for that person. With dominant genetic disorders, it is only necessary for an individual to be affected by one autosomal dominant disorder. Another words, usually a child will only have one parent that has the disorder and when the parents conceive, the child then has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene. Recessive genetic disorders are caused when an individual receives two defective genes, one from each parent. An example of a dominant genetic disorder is Neurofibromatosis. There are two types of NF, there is NF1, and NF2. I have Neurofibromatosis type 1, and with this an individual has neurofibroma tumors that grow on the nerve endings from on the outside of their body. NF type 2 is very uncommon, more so than NF1. With NF2 an individual will have many of the tumors on their cranial and spinal nerves, along with tumors that will affect both of the auditory nerves which could cause hearing loss. Both my girls also have NF1, and my youngest daughter has one of the tumors growing on her bilateral optic nerve, therefore, she has to have MRI test done every six months to once a......

Words: 1837 - Pages: 8

“Gene Therapy”

...Gene therapy is the transplantation of normal, healthy genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones in order to repair or replace the diseased causing cell, genes. How it works is correct the genetic disorders, like sickle cell, brain cancer and other cancerous cell and viral infections. Biotechnologist have found that there is still no quick rout to achieving this. Gene therapy is still at its experimental stages of treatment, but some of their findings have been promising. The gene therapy starts with a virus. The Genetic engineers then extract the genetic coding from the virus, replacing it with a therapeutic gene that is designed to produce proteins that help fight certain illness. Proteins are then added to the virus. The protein is placed on top of the virus. It then attaches itself to the cell that is causing the disease or virus. This the new genetic code. The new gene with the virus is then injected into a patient or patients. It will then to try get through the body’s immune systems. Sometimes the immune system will attack and destroy the virus before it able to reach the diseased or cancerous cells. The virus only attaches to cells that are compatible to its receptors. When the diseased causing cell starts to respond to the proteins the virus attaches itself to the surface and the cell receptors draws the virus inside this called endocytosis. The virus which contains a genetic coding for enzymes is called integrase. Next the......

Words: 705 - Pages: 3

Current Research on Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy Suggests That It Will Become an Important Treatment Strategy

...Current research on cystic fibrosis gene therapy suggests that it will become an important treatment strategy INTRODUCTION: Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disease, triggered by mutation in the gene CFTR i.e. cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. CFTR is an ABC gene i-e ATP-binding cassette (transporter) gene that encodes a protein. This CFTR protein is a chloride ion channel protein that controls the flow of chloride ions and water across the cells. This movement is important in generating sweat, digestive juices, as well as mucus secretion and its clearance. This CFTR gene is located at q 31.2 locus of chromosome 7 long arm. The most common mutation in cystic fibrosis is removal of three nucleotides that results in loss of a nucleotide phenylalanine (F) at 508th position at the long arm of chromosome 7. Depending upon the protein expression and function six classes of mutations have been identified in cystic fibrosis: CLASS I: these are non-sense mutations that hinder the protein synthesis as they have premature stop codons. CLASS II: these mutations are most commonly found in patients of cystic fibrosis that include the deletions of phenylalanine 508th del. As a result of this deletion, protein folding is reduced and as a result its transport to cell surface is impaired and it undergoes degradation within the cellular lysosomes. CLASS III: in these mutations, proteins are normally present but are not expressed to a level that responds to......

Words: 2600 - Pages: 11

Gene Therapy

...Gene Therapy Introduction to Biology 115 Gene Therapy Many medical conditions, disorders, and diseases for centuries went without cures and caused discomfort and even death. Doctors and scientists have worked together regarding many cases in hopes of finding cures for patients and changing the future of modern medicine. The use of gene therapy in the last four decades has been instrumental in many ways. Gene therapy is responsible for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, aids, hemophilia, heart disease, and cystic fibrosis to name a few. Biological Basis In 1865, Gregory Mendel was a fore runner with gene studies which identified the genetic traits that would later lead to revolutionary biological science. Mendel was responsible for providing research for his experiments with plants. The experiments successfully led him to the conclusion that the offspring from mutations could be classified as generational. This theory was correct and laid the foundation for many other scientific studies to eventually lead to significant advancements in genetic study. In the 1960’s scientists exposed the genetic codes which led to decades of discovery to include genetic maps, DNA and RNA sequences, and multiple data strands. Gene therapy was introduced in 1990 with a clinical trial study on a 4 year old little girl suffering from adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA); which is a severe combined immune deficiency brought on by a mutation of enzymes within a cell. (Gene Med, 2015)...

Words: 1437 - Pages: 6