Genetically Modified Animals

In: Science

Submitted By paper3400
Words 1543
Pages 7
Genetically Modified Animals
Animals with special characteristics and traits have been cross breed through sexual reproduction for many years, but with the increasing of technology, scientists can now create animals directly from gene modification. Genetic modification is described as the science used to change the characteristics of an organism genetic component and manipulate the deoxyribonucleic acid structures using technology. “Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is nucleic acid that carries hereditary information about traits of an organism and carries the instructions for all the characteristics that organism inherits, it consist of two chain of nucleotides twisted into a double helix” (Starr, C., Evers, C. A., Starr, L. 2013). Genetically modified animals are made from embryonic stem cells carrying two copies of gene one from the male and the other from the female. Scientists cut and join DNA from different sources then transfer it into the organism so it has the modified genes and from that procedure, a new set of genes is created. Manipulating the DNA and transforming certain gene to create a new life is called recombinant DNA (rDNA) technique.
Scientists use recombinant DNA technique to modify the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell which carries genetic instructions from one organism to another and to improve specific characteristics of an animal or to introduce a new trait that is resistant to diseases and may enhance the growth of animals. In addition, the changes introduced to that animal can be transferred to their offspring. “Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is two pieces of DNA from different organisms that have been joined together into a single piece of DNA” (Harden, G.H. 2011). The changes induced to a genetically modified animal using technology are usually known in detail once the subject animal is analyzed. However, this may not always be the outcome of…...

Similar Documents

Genetically Modified Organisms

...Thesis: Genetically modified organisms are all around us, more dominantly in the food we eat. From the good at your local fast food chain, to the milk you drink, bananas, chicken, tomatoes, and the beef you buy at your local grocery store. Scientists have discovered that by inserting genetic information from one organism to another and modifying it into another organism, it makes the food crops stay fresher, grow bigger, and make the crops produce their own pesticides. However, the technology to modify these genes has gone beyond its practicality. If science continues to genetically modify foods they have the potential to pose various risks to our bodies, the environment, as well as, have a huge impact on the global economy. Some risks associated with genetically modified food is the lack of research, lack of regulations, and the possible long term health risks associated with eating genetically modified food. In our paper, we plan to discuss all of these issues and show that while there are some benefits to genetically modified foods, the risks associated with the genetic modifications vastly outweigh the benefits. Introduction: Genetically modified organisms are any organism that has had a gene from one organism implanted into another organism in order to improve or change the genetic makeup of that organism. It can also be referred to as transgenic, due to the process being the transfer of genes from one organism to another. Other names also referred to are......

Words: 1406 - Pages: 6

Genetically Modified Foods

...July 21, 2013 Trent McDowell Genetically Modified Foods According to The World Health Organization, “genetically modified (GM) foods are foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally through the introduction of a gene from a different organism” (WHO, 2013). These foods are made possible by infusing genes of a different specimen with their DNA. This kind of adjustment is used in both animals and plants, but it is more commonly seen in the latter. There are a host of reasons why such foods have been developed. Some foods are adjusted genetically to prevent allergies that may occur after being eaten, while others are adjusted to improve their life on the shelf (Kartha, 2012). There is still a lot that is unknown about the effects foods that are genetically modified will have on bodies of humans in the long run. Many believe that consuming genetically adjusted foods can cause the growth of illnesses that antibiotics cannot help (Kartha, 2012). In addition to causing diseases, people who eat genetically altered foods have high risks of getting cancer (Kartha, 2012). These altered foods are new inventions so to speak and not a lot is understood about the long-term effects on the human species. Due to the unknown effects, many decide to steer clear of genetically modified foods. Some argue that genetically modified foods are very beneficial. They feel that the modified foods will aid in the feeding......

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

Genetically Modified Organisms

...Genetically Modified Organisms Technology, Society, and Culture Table of Contents Technical Aspect of GMO by Chad Dookie Page 3 Moral and Ethical Aspect of GMO by Ronald Claude Page 7 Cultural and Legal Aspect of GMO by Evangelina Ramirez Page 14 Environmental Issues of GMO by Donovan Collins Page 23 References Page 32 Technical Aspect of GMO by Chad Dookie Description of GMOs and the associated science Most of the populations that do shopping in the groceries to buy food for their family are not aware of the “naturalness” of the food. Groceries sell items such as; cotton seeds, rice, soy, sugar beets, yeast, cassava, papaya, bananas, food flavoring, potatoes, corn, tomatoes, squash, oils, beef, pork, chicken, salmon, peas, alfalfa, and honey. Notice that most of the items listed either came from a plant or an animal. Those are the top 20 grocery items that have been genetically modified. What are genetically modified organisms? A genetically modified organism is any living thing that has had their DNA tampered with. This can be mutating, removing, or adding genetic material into the organism. All of the items listed in paragraph one has had their DNA tampered with. Most times when people talk about genetically modified organisms, they mostly refer to plants that are genetically modified. You may be wondering how the animals listed are considered genetically modified. This is because scientists modify the plants that are......

Words: 9591 - Pages: 39

Genetically Modified Organisms

... In a sense, it is almost as if we should redefine the simple name of what we eat. Is a carrot still a carrot? What gives the food we eat a name? The debate on genetically modified foods is one that continues to carry stronger and stronger throughout the years. Some crops are modified to prevent insects from eating them, other foods are altered bio-mechanically to provide additional resources or to grow larger. Even so far as farm animals are given treatments that dramatically increase their body size, yielding more meat. To preface the argument food or against genetically modified foods: there is simply no easy solution. The overall scenario of genetically modified foods has many different parameters. These parameters include ethical, religious, legal and environmental ramifications. It would be equally as irrational to say that genetically modified foods were more or less dangerous than they were beneficial. The perspective to the scenario should be taken on both micro and macro levels, and to perceive their effects in the most open-minded scenarios as possible. Much of the rhetoric against genetically modified foods focuses on a fraction of what they entail; while, perhaps, leaving out economic models that suggest fewer alternatives. A great example that sets the playing field for genetically modified foods is the nutrition shortage in Southeast Asia. In this region, rice is the greatest staple food. Unfortunately, because the area is in relative poverty and......

Words: 3305 - Pages: 14

Genetically Modified Organism

...GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD RESEARCH SUBMITTED BY: DOLORFINO, JOSE NORBIE T. SBGE I -13 Top 10 Genetically Modified Food Products Like humans, all organisms have genetic material. When scientists alter genetic material, or DNA, it's called genetic modification (GM). Genetically modifying foods or food crops can enhance taste and quality, increase nutrients or improve resistance to pests and disease. In some cases, GM foods help conserve natural resources, because the altered version might require less water or energy for processing. The first genetically modified food to reach our tables was the Flavr Savr tomato. Grown in California, the Flavr Savr tomato received Food and Drug Administration approval in 1994, after two years of testing and assessment. Mounting costs made the crop unprofitable, however, and production ceased in 1997. Creation of the Flavr Savr opened the doors for other GM foods to make their way into our kitchens. In the U.S., genetic modification has expanded into almost every area of food production. Scientists can introduce some sort of modification into the genes of crops, dairy products and animals. For example, ranchers and dairy farmers normally feed cattle a GM diet, which is in turn passed on to you when you drink milk or eat beef. Do you need to worry about what's on your family's dinner table? And are there some surprising benefits to GM foods? As you'll see, this subject is one hot potato. 10. SUGAR BEETS The sugar beet is one of...

Words: 2493 - Pages: 10

Genetically Modified Foods

...Introduction Genetically modified, by definition, is a term denoting or derived from an organism whose DNA has been altered for the purpose of improvement or correction of defects. ( Genetically modified foods are foods that have been altered to enhance certain traits for the purpose of making them more desirable to consumers. Since the development of this process, modified foods have become more common throughout the years, and with their increase in production there has also been great controversy. History of Genetically Modified Foods In 1994, the first genetically modified food the Food and Drug Administration deemed safe enough for human consumption was a tomato called the “Flavr Savr,” produced in California. The purpose of altering the tomato was for it to be resistant to rotting and decaying as quickly as tomatoes usually do. They were not labeled as being genetically modified and they were between two and five time more expensive than ordinary tomatoes, but consumers still purchased them. However, due to competition, brought on by a tomato made conventionally and with a longer shelf life, the Flavr Savr tomatoes were not profitable. Genetically modified tomatoes were then made into a tomato puree and sold in Europe in the mid-1990s, but a couple years later controversy arose over the concept of genetically modifying food. In 1998, a doctor from Aberdeen, in Scotland, published results from a research study he conducted suggesting that......

Words: 2724 - Pages: 11

Genetically Modified Organism

...Genetically Modified Organisms Group E- Chrystalyn Northcutt-Warden LAS 432- Technology, Society & Culture Kira Leavens DeVry University December 7, 2013 Table of Contents Abstract Introduction Political Influences Economic Questions and Considerations Psychological Affects Moral and Ethical Implication Conclusion Works Cited Appendix Abstract Introduction The Hunger Games trilogy dwells upon genetic modification. With genetically engineered animals such as the jabberjay, mockingjay, tracker jacker and wolf mutts, monkey mutts and even genetically engineered roses, the trilogy explores the ethics and consequences of toying with Nature. This paper will discuss the pros and cons of genetically modified organisms. Also the economic, psychological effect on society as well as the moral and ethical implications that this technology can have on today’s society. History Genetically modified organisms have continually been around but have recently evolved and came to light in the past 10 years. Genetically modified organisms are described as “An organism whose genetic characteristics have been altered by the insertion of a modified gene or a gene from another organism using the techniques of genetic engineering (, 2013).” genetically modified organism (GMO) is used to refer to any microorganism, plant, or animal in which genetic engineering techniques have been used to introduce, remove, or modify specific......

Words: 2687 - Pages: 11

Genetically Modified Crop Plants

...Gene Therapy: Genetically Modified Crop Plants Coward Introduction to Biology - SCI 115 Professor Johnson March 4, 2014 Genetically modified organisms have become a standard rather than an exception in America. Since their introduction in the 1990’s, genetically modified (GM) products have conquered agriculture in the United States and hold a large share of the food on American’s plates. (Dupont) Everyone has been exposed to it whether they know it or not. According to the US Department of agriculture by 2012, 88 percent of corn and 94 percent of soy grown in the United States were genetically modified. The purpose of this essay is to explain what genetically modified crop plants are, to discuss the social and ethical implications and to provide my personal view point. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are defined as organisms whose genome has been modified as genetic engineering. Transferring a gene from one species to another to provide an organism that is transgenic or a gene that may be altered and reinserted into an individual of the same species are the results of a genetically modified organism. Genes can be introduced into plant cells by way of electric or chemical shocks, by blasting them. The most common GMOs are bacteria and yeast, which have been modified to produce medically important proteins which has benefitted people with diabetes. (Starr, Evers, & Starr, 2013) GMOs or GM is used to refer to...

Words: 1578 - Pages: 7

Is Genetically Modified Foods Safe?

...Genetically Modified Foods According to the World Health Organization, Genetically Modified Organisms(GMOs) are "organisms in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in such a way that does not occur naturally."1 This technology is also referred to as "genetic engineering", "biotechnology" or "recombinant DNA technology" and consists of randomly inserting genetic fragments of DNA from one organism to another, usually from a different species. For example, an artificial combination of genes that includes a gene to produce the pesticide Cry1Ab protein (commonly known as Bt toxin), originally found in Bacillus thuringiensis, is inserted in to the DNA of corn randomly. Both the location of the transferred gene sequence in the corn DNA and the consequences of the insertion differ with each insertion. The plant cells that have taken up the inserted gene are then grown in a lab using tissue culture and/or nutrient medium that allows them to develop into plants that are used to grow GM food crops.2 Natural breeding processes have been safely utilized for the past several thousand years. In contrast, "GE crop technology abrogates natural reproductive processes, selection occurs at the single cell level, the procedure is highly mutagenic and routinely breeches genera barriers, and the technique has only been used commercially for 10 years."3 Despite these differences, safety assessment of GM foods has been based on the idea of "substantial equivalence" such that "if a...

Words: 1409 - Pages: 6

Genetically Modified Organisms

...These are plants and animals that are created by scientists through combining genes from other animals or plants. The combination of genes from different species creates a special species that does not occur naturally. Scientists believe that the use of GMOs as they are commonly referred to, is the way forward for governments and other organizations that are concerned with food security issues (Nelson 58). Scientists believe that GMOs can feed everyone in the world. However, this can only be achieved if governments embrace the use of this new technology to create genetically modified foods. Recent research has shown that the use of GMOs can lead to increased food production (Freedman 18). Using this technology, scientists have been able to create plants that are resistant to pests, weeds and other diseases that farmers have been complaining about over the years. Farmers are able to avoid the use of herbicides and pesticides. Food produced using this technology is highly nutritional and is believed to have better texture than the naturally grown food. GMOs also have a longer lifespan and do not go bad as quickly as the naturally grown food. Through this technology, scientists have been able to genetically engineer plants that can be used as vaccines to immunize people against various diseases (Nelson 37). There has been increased need to come up with plants which can grow in deserts and other areas having conditions that are not suitable for germination of plants. It is......

Words: 598 - Pages: 3

Genetically Modified Crops

...Today, anyone can go to the grocery store and purchase fruits and vegetables that have been genetically modified. As a matter of fact, most of us do it unknowingly all the time. But, what exactly are genetically modified foods and what sets it apart from traditional breeding? The biotech industry and our departments of agriculture claim that genetic engineering is a natural extension of traditional breeding. However, traditional agriculture methods, such as cross-pollination or selective breeding, are based on natural reproductive mechanisms. These traditional methods will cross only one kind of plant or animal with a similar species. To be specific, genetic engineering crosses the coded DNA barrier and utilizes very powerful (and unnatural) laboratory techniques for transferring genetic material directly between plants and animals. Using these techniques, genes from any plant, animal, virus, or other organism, including a human, can be inserted into any other organism. Therefore, scientists have been able to take “beneficial genes” from some plants or animals and splice them into the DNA of fruits and vegetables. This modification process can make them resistant to pesticides and or insects. Some have even been able to modify rice to have vitamin A as well as the high carbohydrates it also contains; they call it “Golden rice.” This all seems like great progress. At a glance, one might even conclude that this technology could end world hunger. It might even be concluded that......

Words: 1364 - Pages: 6

Genetically Modified Animals

...Genetically Modified and Engineered Animals Heather Swanson Introduction to Biology Professor Jiru March 15, 2015 A genetically modified animal is one that has had its DNA altered, by either changing or removing certain DNA sequences in a way that does not occur naturally. The reason they do this is to modify the characteristics of an animal or introduce new traits, such as enhanced growth or disease resistance. Changes to the animals genetic make up, DNA, can then be transmitted to the next generation. Genetically modified animals are being produced for two main reasons, human medicine and agriculture. Genetic modifying is a useful technology because it enables animals to produce useful proteins. Conventional animal breeding is restrained to naturally occurring variations in the proteins that are present in a certain species. This limits the range and extent of genetic improvement that can be achieved. Most animal research is in the field of human medicine. Many therapeutic proteins for the treatment of human disease require animal cell specific modifications to be effective, currently most are produced in mammal cell based reactors. The manufacturing capacity for therapeutic proteins can’t keep pace with the rapid progress in drug discovery and development, this has resulted in rising costs and unmet needs. Genetically modified animals may provide an important source of these protein drugs in the future because the production of recombinant (DNA formed......

Words: 666 - Pages: 3

Genetically Modified Organism

...GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS _____________________ A Position Paper Presented to Mr. Jesse R. Songcayawon, Ph. D. History Department Adventist University of the Philippines _____________________ In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Course General Philosophy _____________________ By Krishnalyn Precious Jewel Castro Rosedelle Colot Jedd Fabroa Dean Carlo Fajilan Joan Mary Hidalgo Julius Anthony Hiphip Myrtle Magalang Mark Anthony Mayorga Ruiz, Mike I. INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND As the population of the world continues to increase, it will be accompanied by an increase in the demand for food. Food is one of the most vital needs of the world we live in. In the old days, ancient people kill for food to survive. Today, some people mark it as piece of extravagance and whatnots. Food feeds our hunger and in turn, gives energy for the daily activities we humans need to do in order to get through the day. Also, it forms connection within another human being for it is shared along the dinner table and have food as the topic of the night. Basically, food is the demand and supply which runs the world: be it in the developed country where food is made even luxury and be it in the developing country where food is seen as a staple for survival. Since the total acreage planted is no longer increasing, unless new production technology is adopted, such an increase in demand that is unmatched by an increase in supply in the world food market will......

Words: 2676 - Pages: 11

Genetically Modified Organisms

...Genetically Modified Organisms There is nothing more valuable than a person’s health. It is a topic of many conversations, and the very thing that can prohibit or allow a person to live a full life. Imagine if all of the stigmas put on America’s ideas of what health foods are were completely false. Vegetables, fruits and whole grains for example are staple items classified as “healthy” in today’s society. Personally, there have many times when choosing a sala over a greasy hamburger has given a feeling of accomplishment that a healthier choice was made. The fact is that unbeknownst to most of the population that salad contains genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and in hindsight, may not have been the healthy choice. The US government should have to require all food producers to correctly label all products that contain GMOs to inform the public what they are truly choosing to eat. There has been an unquestioned sense of security that the government and food and drug administration (FDA) are looking out for our best interests, until now. The wool has been over the eyes of many consumers and slowly the truths are being uncovered as to what GMOs are doing to the health of many unaware Americans. Genetically modified organisms, in the most elementary form, are foods that have had specific changes in their DNA to alter the growth patterns and resistance to pathogens. The combination of two (or more) totally unrelated species is against natural scientific theory. ...

Words: 1713 - Pages: 7

Genetically Modified Foods

...Genetically Modified Foods Linda L. Day SCI207 – Dependence of Man on the Environment Cynthia Collins February 26th, 2012 Genetically Modified Foods Genetically modified foods have increased the total harvest of many cash crops by eradicating the harm done by weeds and insects, and for the most part, this has been the single greatest benefit that GMOs have presented within the last decade. There are benefits being speculated and tested as of now to future speculation on what this science can bring us. There are other ways that GMOs are able to increase the overall bounty of a crops harvest, such as resisting dangerous diseases and being able to sustain the plant with less water or less nutrients. There have also been attempts to create plants resistant to more untamable forces of nature rather than pests, such as the temperature. There have been many speculations that cold-resistant crops, mainly corn and other fruits and vegetable, could be created by taking the DNA of cold-tolerant fish in the Arctic and splicing it with these foods. “An antifreeze gene from cold water fish has been introduced into plants such as tobacco and potato. With this antifreeze gene, these plants are able to tolerate cold temperatures that normally would kill unmodified seedlings,” (Whitman). One benefit in particular that has seemed to have caught the eye of retailers especially adding more nutritional benefits to foods, such as rice with built-in Vitamin A that can help prevent......

Words: 1415 - Pages: 6