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Submitted By donnabell
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Pages 10
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The review of related literature of this study identifies how fear and interest, together with the students’ study habits can affect their performance in various subject matters, specifically mathematics. To begin this chapter, the researchers will define the variables involved in the study. The researchers will also examine other research studies and articles that show how these variables are related. This chapter ends with the summary of literature review. Mathematics as defined yourdictionary.com, is ”the group of sciences (including arithmetic, geometry, algebra, calculus, etc. dealing with quantities, magnitudes, and forms and their relationships, attributes, etc., by the use of numbers and symbols.” Ernest (1989) mentioned that learning mathematics involves more than basic knowledge of facts, skills and procedures. He added that it has a crucial involvement of conceptual structures, the general strategies in solving problems, attitudes towards the subject and appreciation of mathematics. According to the latest Gallup youth survey conducted in 2004 (as cited by Saad, 2005), the subject that the teenagers find most difficult in school is mathematics. Thus, Saad(2005) said that it is not surprising how the subject has the lowest performance rate. The reasons were not mentioned, however, Stites (1993) said that people have the tendency to blame the educators of the poor performance of the students in math. However, Temple professor and mathematician John Allen Paulos (as cited in Stites, 1993) directed these problems to a number of factors. Paulos (as cited in Stites, 1993) attributed this problem to the educational system that "emphasizes practice without incorporating the concept." In addition to this, he mentioned that this is also partly because of the mentality that math is…...

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