Hallmark Scandal

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sanjidarinti
Words 2082
Pages 9
What is Management?
Management is the process of achieving organizational objectives through people and other resources.
On the other hand we can say, management is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. The manager’s job is to combine human and technical resources in the best way possible to achieve the company’s goals.
The concept of management has acquired special significance in the present competitive and complex business world. Efficient and purposeful management is absolutely essential for the survival of a business unit. Management concept is comprehensive and covers all aspects of business. In simple words, management means utilizing available resources in the best possible manner and also for achieving well defined objectives. It is a distinct and dynamic process involving use of different resources for achieving well defined objectives. It is the end result of inputs and is available through efficient management process.
The term management is used extensively in business. It is the core or life giving element in business. We expect that a business unit should be managed efficiently. This is precisely what is done in management. Management is essential for the conduct of business activity in an orderly manner. It is a vital function concerned with all aspects of working of an enterprise.

What are the functions of Management?
Effective management involves creative problem solving, motivating employees and making sure the organization accomplishes objectives and goals. There are five functions of management: planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.
These functions are considered the most important. Learning how to balance each of these is the key to effective management within a company. If one is focused too much on one function as…...

Similar Documents

Bribery Scandal

...two to tango". In the Siemens case, the bribery was in all of their doings. I believe that it wasn't necessary to use bribe to win over the contracts. What companies need to do to win over contracts is to actually sell their products, believing that it's going to benefit the country and show the countries how. Maybe instead for giving millions of dollars in bribe money actually give them a big discount. 2. The board had their reasons to not extend Kleinfeld's term, despite his good performance and was not being directly implicated in the bribery scandal. From the beginning he was not received well by the conservative old generation because of his American style of work. So I believe that the board was not right in not extending Kleinfeld's term, because their reasons to do so had nothing to do with the bribery scandal, but personal. The main challenge for the new CEO was to bring the company out the bribery scandals and sustain the growth set by Kleinfeld and above all gain the confidence of labor and management within Siemens. Siemens was really at fault in this bribery case. On account of increasing competition companies were resorting to illegal payments to win international contracts especially in some emerging economies...

Words: 354 - Pages: 2

Enron Scandal

...ENRON SCANDAL Enron was formed in 1985 from merger of two companies; Houston Gas and InterNorth Inc. by Kenneth Lay. It grew to be among the highly innovative companies throughout 1990s. Its unique business strategy made it known. Initially, the company’s objective was to sell electricity and gas but by 1990s it had ventured into other businesses such as pulp and paper companies and communications . Its success was indicated by the rise in annual revenues; between 1995 and 2000 Enron recorded a revenue rise of $91 billion dollars. However in 2001 as notes accounting fraud was revealed in its financial reports. It was established that the company had indeed experienced a loss of more that $500 million dollars (Li, 2010) for the previous five years; contrary to its audit reports. The company fell bankrupt later in 2001. This essay examines the scandal, its effects and critically gives an ethical analysis of the situation. Enron scandal is the worst to have ever happened in the US business industry. Enron’s bankruptcy was a result of accounting fraud which was substantially institutionalized and creatively crafted within the management. The management focused on converting all the strategies into success to maintain their heavy compensations-through accounting manipulation; a greed financial officer with underground agreements to enrich himself; a collaborative law and auditing firms in Elkins and Arthur Andersen respectively; corrupt investment bankers- they......

Words: 882 - Pages: 4

Enron Scandal

...The Enron Scandal and Moral Hazard Prof. Leigh Tesfatsion Department of Economics Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-1070 http://www.econ.iastate.edu/tesfatsi/ Last Revised: 3 April 2011 The Enron Scandal and Moral Hazard • Enron, the 7th largest U.S. company in 2001, filed for bankruptcy in December 2001. • Enron investors and retirees were left with worthless stock. • Enron was charged with securities fraud (fraudulent manipulation of publicly reported financial results, lying to SEC,…) • QUESTION: In what ways are security market moral hazard problems at the heart of the Enron bankruptcy scandal? Brief Time-Line of the Enron Scandal • Enron was a Houston-based natural gas pipeline company formed by merger in 1985. • By early 2001, Enron had morphed into the 7th largest U.S. company, and the largest U.S. buyer/seller of natural gas and electricity. • Enron was heavily involved in energy brokering, electronic energy trading, global commodity and options trading, etc. Brief Time-Line of the Enron Scandal…Continued • On October 16, 2001, in the first major public sign of trouble, Enron announces a huge third-quarter loss of $618 million. • On October 22, 2001, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) begins an inquiry into Enron’s accounting practices. • On December 2, 2001, Enron files for bankruptcy. : Oct – Dec 2001 Regulatory Oversight of Enron Auditors Arthur Anderson Audit Committee (Directors) SEC Company Report Shareholders Enron...

Words: 1722 - Pages: 7

Hallmark Scandal

...Newspapers have published quite a number of reports on gross irregularities in loan sanctioning and disbursement by the state- owned financial institutions. But one particular loan case, now being dubbed as Hallmark Scam because of its huge size and indifference, deliberate or otherwise, on the part of the management of the country’s largest public sector bank, has come as a real shocker. As the details of the scam are coming out gradually, the people concerned are suspecting that something has gone seriously wrong inside the state-owned banks. The Hallmark corruption with Sonali bank is one of the biggest scam of Bangladesh. The finance minister's initial comment on Bangladesh Bank's authority to recommend the change is not justified. The managerial system errors was the lack of audit teams; special audit teams, investigation team and supervision teams of all the government, non-government and specialized banks and they should be trained to be better adapted. The faulty system of our country led this thing to take place. The people working under the Sonali bank were not fully ethical and loyal and that is one of the reasons for such corruption taking place. The minister, however, did not comment on how strong the presence of political appointments could be on the boards of the state-owned commercial banks (SOCBs). A central bank official alleged that some board members were also involved in the Hall-Mark scam, adding that the Bangladesh......

Words: 721 - Pages: 3

Hallmark Scam

...Objective: The most recent financial sector crisis of Bangladesh is the “Hallmark-Sonali Bank Loan Scandal “. This crisis identified in the year 2012 and it has been took place from the year 2010 and finally disclosed in 2012. To learn lesson from this incident and prevent further recurrence, study in depth of this crisis is very important. Background: A central bank probe found that Sonali Bank high-ups, including a deputy managing director, a general manager and the branch manager, were directly involved in the scam. The amount embezzled by the six entities is equivalent to almost 15 percent of the total estimated cost of the $2.9 billion Padma bridge project. Of Tk. 3,547 crore, Hallmark Group alone took away Tk. 2,686.14 crore, T and Brothers Tk. 609.69 crore, Paragon Group Tk. 146.60 crore, Nakshi Knit Tk. 66.36 crore, DN Sports Tk. 33.25 crore and Khanjahan Ali Tk. 4.96 crore. Of the six borrowers, Hallmark has been found to be the biggest fraudster. Analysis and Research: Bangladesh experienced the biggest financial scam in the year 2012 which is commonly known as the “Hallmark-Sonali Bank Loan Scandal “. To understand, analyze and research this scam in depth, let’s look for the answer of the following questions: . What happened? . How did it happen? . Why wasn’t the malpractice prevented or discovered sooner? . What has been the fall out? . Is it Hallmark’s success or failure of Sonali bank? The first question is: What happened? In May 2012, a......

Words: 6705 - Pages: 27

Hallmark Scandal

...IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) ISSN: 2278-487X. Volume 5, Issue 4 (Nov. - Dec. 2012), PP 01-04 www.iosrjournals.org The Hallmark Corruption: Supervisory Lapses of the Banking System in Bangladesh 1 1 2 Munshi Samaduzzaman, 2Fazluz Zaman Adjunct lecturer, Central Queensland University, Australia Adjunct lecturer, University of New South Wales, Australia Abstract: The implications of the efficient bank supervisory and strong regulatory implementation strategies in Bangladesh Bank will be needed in order to overcome the continued crisis in the banking system. This should be a wakeup call to everyone in the banking industry in the country to further develop and strengthen the strict monitoring of the banking mechanism strategies. At the same time, in order to investigate the numerous misalignments in the supervision of both banking institutions and Central Bank of Bangladesh as well as to integrate the appropriate linkages between proper implementation of the bank regulatory and supervisory structures. The result of this study suggests that there is a strong need for focusing on the dual banking system, as well as a need to increase the efficiency in the technical areas, as well as a tooth for a tooth law in order for the Central Bank of Bangladesh to beat numerous fraud activities in the banking sector. Proper growth and profitability and transparency in the entire banking sector will be achieved through a strict implementation of banking......

Words: 2991 - Pages: 12

Enron Scandal

...Busicom2 – 05/02/10 Executive Summary In 2001 fell Enron after one of the biggest scandals in the modern economy. Creative accounting, oppressive management and deceptive communication are in the heart of that affair. The first ruse was a cheating accounting. The company used the mark to market system, but in an illegal way for they calculated the assumed profits for the next 20 years, ie long term assumed profits. Moreover, they did not declare all the expenses (only a third for the trade with the station in the North Sea) and manipulated subsidiaries, which are told independent when they belong at least 3% of their capital, to hide debts and boost earnings. Besides, the management in Enron used the staff performance review which conducts the staff to work hard in order to be in the group of the ‘winners’. There were actually rewards for good employees, pension and savings, so that they would be interested in the good form of the firm and would not complain against the scam. Enron also managed to corrupt some politicians, bankers, analysts by pressurizing them or by giving great advantages and funds. For instance, the Energy Regulation Board earned one million dollars. Their marketing strategy was a diversification of the production of the corruption of analysts who would promote those new products. When the frauds were discovered by an employee and exposed to the Securities and Exchange Commission, the free fall began for Enron. The shares dropped from 90$ to 1$,......

Words: 365 - Pages: 2


...Lehman Brothers Scandal Corporate governance is defined as a system that control and direct a corporation (Shleifer 1997). Governance arrangement specifies dissemination of responsibilities and rights among different contributors in the corporation like financial managers, board of directors and shareholders. It also specifies procedures and rules of decision making in corporate affairs. Besides, corporate governance has plays its role to encourage organization to produce value through innovation as well as development process. Lehman Brothers would be further analyze and discussed in term of accounting scandal below. Lehman Brothers was the fourth largest United States investment bank when it collapsed and this has affected 25,000 employees worldwide. Thus, the significant factors that cause this scandal of corporate failure to be happened would be analysed below. Firstly, Lehman has high degree of excessive debt and leverage which mean ratio of total assets to shareholders’ equity in 2007. Furthermore, it has a huge mortgage securities portfolio that cause this corporate to becoming expose to declining market conditions (Chiquier 2004). Besides, it has the largest debt of $619m, which is the largest bankruptcy filling in history which surpasses Enron. Lehman’s shares decreases a huge amount of 48% concerning it would be the next firm to fail in its corporate governance as it is the second largest underwriter of mortgage-backed securities. Consequently, the declining......

Words: 572 - Pages: 3

Enron Scandal

...“ENRON SCANDAL” The Enron Corporation was the biggest in a series of scandals that damaged the reputations of corporations in the United States. It represented one of the largest fraud scandals in history. As a result, the company was said to force to file for bankruptcy in 2001 of December. This is where Sarbanes-Oxley Act was imposed with stricter rules on auditors and made corporate executives criminally liable for lying about their accounts. Enron was known as a provider of products and services related to natural gas, electricity and communications to wholesale and even retail customers. As an accounting major student I recognized that there were several doubtful accounting schemes that Enron used just to manipulate the employees, investors, customers and everyone. While I found that there are a lot of issues to expound on, the main issue is how fraudulent their company was especially having misrepresented their public financial reports. The financials presented by Enron were restated. In 2000, the profitability was less than 1%, becoming clear that Enron’s profits were realizable only if the quality of their revenue is good but if not it is not realizable. Enron used SPEs or Special Purpose Entity this is used to keep Enron’s debts and losses away from its balance sheets, therefore allowing it have a good credit rating and look good in front of the investors. In this case it is purely seen as an investment scam. In the company were I worked on last......

Words: 590 - Pages: 3

The Enron Scandal

...| The Enron Scandal | | Introduction Enron Corporation was an American energy, commodities and services company based in Houston, Texas. From the 1990's until December 2001, Enron was famous throughout the business world and was named by Fortune as "America's Most Innovative Company" for six consecutive years. It grew wealthy due largely to marketing, promoting power, and its high stock price. Before its bankruptcy, Enron employed about 21,000 staff in forty countries and was one of the world's major electricity, natural gas, communications, and pulp and paper companies, which claimed revenues of $100.8 billion in 2000. Enron gave the illusion that it was a steady company with good revenue which was not the case, as a large part of its profits were made on paper through a creatively planned accounting fraud. Deep debt and surfacing information about hiding losses gave the company big problems and in the late 2001 Enron declared bankruptcy under the United States Bankruptcy Code. The collapse was followed by a series of revelations on how the executives manipulated Enron's success. The Fraud Schemes The Enron scandal, revealed in October 2001 was a management fraud involving top executives of Enron who deliberately manipulated the accounting structures in order to conceal their losses and debts so that the corporation appeared to be performing favourably. They adopted mark-to-market accounting, an accounting system based on market value, which was then inflated;......

Words: 2330 - Pages: 10


...run-on bank scenario. If Enron’s customers were willing to continue and use the company’s service, Enron would have been able to avoid bankruptcy. Enron might have had large debts and obligation but they had also large revenue, once Enron lost their credibility they also lost their customers, as they were not willing to continue to use their services. Andersen was a large and established firm, and losing a company like Enron, as their client would not had led to their end, but the company lost their credibility in the eyes of their clients. As a result of that, many clients decided to terminate their contracts Andersen. Following the scandal with Enron, Andersen lost a huge amount of customers, which led the to declare bankruptcy. There are different reasons why so many companies fired Andersen. A strong opinion is that once the scale of the scandal was known, the clients felt betrayed; it is sort of un-American to do such thing. Clients did not want to be involved with a company that causes so many people to loss their job, and causes much harm to many more. Lack of integrity was linked to both Enron and Andersen. Once a perceived lack of integrity is attached to a person, it is really hard to recover from that; it causes irreparable damage. If a lack of integrity is linked to a person, all of his actions will be looked over with suspicions. For example if a tax accountant is caught filling his own taxes unlawfully, any other tax return that he will work on will be......

Words: 2037 - Pages: 9

The Madoff Scandal

...The Madoff scandal 16 December 2008 The repercussions from the collapse of Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC, whose founder and owner was arrested last Thursday after admitting that his $17 billion investment advisory business was "a giant Ponzi scheme," continue to widen. According to a criminal complaint filed by the FBI and a civil action brought by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the elderly Madoff estimated that the losses from his fraud exceeded $50 billion. The tally of losses already reported by banks, hedge funds and wealthy investors climbed over the weekend to nearly $20 billion. Banks and hedge funds around the world—in the US, Britain, Italy, Spain, France, Switzerland and Japan—are reporting hundreds of millions and even billions in losses. University endowments, charities and other institutions that entrusted their money to Madoff or to hedge funds that invested in Madoff's company are reeling from the news that their investments are worthless. Prominent and wealthy individuals—including J. Ezra Merkin, the chairman of GMAC, Fred Wilpon, the principal owner of the New York Mets, Norman Braman, the former owner of the Philadelphia Eagles professional football team, Frank Lautenberg, the multimillionaire Democratic senator from New Jersey, and Mortimer Zuckerman, the owner of the New York Daily News—are among those who have lost millions. Among the thousands and even tens of thousands of individuals likely to be affected is no......

Words: 1060 - Pages: 5


...was “a healthy product” that was merely mislabeled (Mintz, 1987). In court, when Hoyvald was asked why he didn’t immediately order a product recall upon first learning of possible adulteration, he replied, “And I could have called up Switzerland and told them I had just closed the company down. Because that is what would have been the result of it” (Traub, 1988). Hoyvald first claimed to have known nothing of the adulterated juice concentrate, then later said he had no proof of adulteration, and in any case he had been acting on the advice of Nestlé attorney Thomas J. Ward (who, by the way, had been involved in Nestlé’s response to the boycott against its infant formula marketing practices and, more recently, the Guinness financial scandal in Great Britain). Lavery claimed that he knew of allegations that the concentrate was adulterated, but had no proof. Nestlé attorneys, who defended the two, claimed that the blame belonged solely on the shoulders of lower-level employees (Welles, 1988). The Trial Ends The New York State case against Beech-Nut came to an end in March 1988, when the company paid a $250,000 fine in restitution for the crime of selling adulterated apple juice. The company was fined another $2 million by federal courts for the violations of federal food and drug laws to which it had pleaded guilty in the fall of 1987 (“Beech-Nut Pays,” 1988: D10). The final sanction levied against Beech-Nut came in April 1989, when it was barred from doing......

Words: 3659 - Pages: 15


...asset of 556 billion, provides insurance service for more than 150 different countries and it has over 630, 000 employees over the world. Even though AIG is such a giant corporation, it has encountered financial problems in the early 2000s. Under financial pressure and a lack of internal control, AIG have committed frauds resulting in several scandals. One of the accounting scandals was disclosed during 2005 which involved a material mis-statement due to false transactions during 2000. This scandal set to prelude leading the downfall of AIG in 2008. In this paper, I will analyze the cause, the transactions and finally effects of the scandal. The Accounting Scandal The Players The CEO of AIG was Maurice “Hank” Greenberg. Greenberg joined AIG in 1962 and led AIG for thirty eight years until his retirement in March 2005. Greenberg was not only the CEO, but also the chairman of the board of AIG. AIG also have several subsidiaries, which include National Union Fire Insurance Company of Pittsburgh (NUFIC) and Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection (HSB). Their financial information are consolidated in AIG’s financial statements. The scandal also involves another corporation General Re Corporation. General Re is a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway, Inc., an investment group run by the billionaire Warren Buffet. General Re also has subsidiaries all over the world and together and it is one of the biggest reinsurance companies in the World. Reinsurance companies are entities......

Words: 281 - Pages: 2

Watergate Scandal

...It was suggested that the President had tried to repair the damages that were caused the Watergate scandal in the first article. From a speech President Nixon had given, it showed that there were a lot things that still needed to be done regarding the scandal. The article stated that the officials under the Watergate scandal were cheating, lying and engaging in illegal activities while in high positions of the government. The people believed that the president did not stand up to the crisis and that he had only done the bare requirements for the situation at hand. The people stongly believed that President Nixon should have done something more to eliminate the Watergate scandal as soon as it was leaked. The article had also showed that the people were not happy with President Nixon’s actions by only accepting the resignations of H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, (Genovese, 1999). He had also accepted the resignation of Attorney General Kleindienst and appointed Elliot Richardson and instructed him to handle the crisis. Finally, the President had made the correct decision by dismissing his White House Counsel John Dean. The second article portrays President Nixon as a good, moral leader. It tried to defend the President from being impeached by acknowledging his achievements. The article also showed that he was human and not perfect. The actions of the President by trying to resolve the crisis, led to speculations by the Chicago Tribune's editorial to leave office...

Words: 780 - Pages: 4