Hepatitis B Epidemiology

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Hepatitis B Virus: Epidemiological and Social Implications
Amy Berry
Grand Canyon University
Concepts in Community and Public Health
NRS-427V
Sandra White
August 21, 2015

Hepatitis B Virus: Epidemiological and Social Implications
The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is an infection that attacks the liver and is categorized as both acute and chronic. The geographic prevalence between five and ten percent is predominantly in African and East Asian countries and only a one percent occurrence in the United States. The global incidence of HBV is approximately two billion people worldwide and of those, 350 million have chronic liver dysfunctionality resulting in an increased mortality risk related to cirrhosis and hepatic neoplasms ("The World Health Organization," 2015). According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), in 2013, acute cases of HBV totaled 3,050 and 31,763 chronic cases were reported in the United States and a it is estimated that a total of 140,000 patients are infected every year that are not reported or unknown, and of those, an upwards of 1,000 people will die of chronic liver disease resulting from HBV ("CDC," 2013). The introduction of the HBV vaccine in 1982 and the inoculation of infants has dramatically lowered the frequency of infection, however, certain subgroups such as hemodialysis patients, health care professionals, intravenous (IV) drug users, organ transplantation recipients and homosexual males are at higher risk and should be periodically tested, regardless of symptomatic presentations (McCance & Huether, 2002). Therefore, it is essential that nurses provide informative educational instruction regarding prevention and risk factors to increase knowledge of the disease process, reduce the rate of transmission and lowering the mortality rate of this avertible disease.
HBV is a categorized in the Hepadnaviridae family and is highly…...

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...http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=79911&site=ehost-live&scope=site&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_3 T he global epidemic of hepatitis B and hepatitis C is a serious public-health problem. . All rights reserved. preventable death worldwide. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are contagious liver diseases caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) reserved. Copyright © 2010. National Academies Press. All rights reserved. INTRODUCTION TABLE 1-1 Key Characteristics of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Causative agent Partially double-stranded DNA virus Enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus Hepadnaviridae family Hepacavirus genus, Flaviviridae family Statistics In the United States, 0.8– 1.4 million people are chronically infected with HBV In the United States, 2.7– 3.9 million people are chronically infected with HCV Routes of transmission Contact with infectious blood, semen, and other body fluids, primarily through: • Birth to an infected mother • Sexual contact with an infected person • Sharing of contaminated needles, syringes, or other injection-drug equipment Less commonly through: • Contact with infectious blood through medical procedures Contact with blood of an infected person, primarily through: • Sharing of contaminated needles, syringes, or other injection-drug equipment • • Less commonly through: • Sexual contact with an infected person Birth to an infected mother Contact......

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