How Does Overcrowding Affect Human Being?

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By TRQMKTDU
Words 3002
Pages 13
Assignment on
Submitted To:
Afreen Choudhury
Department of Marketing
Faculty of Business Studies
University of Dhaka
How does Overcrowding Affect Human Being?
Department of Marketing
Faculty of Business Studies

University of Dhaka


Group Profile: SL NO | NAME | ID | 1 | S. M. Fahim Uddin | 20 | 2 | Ariful Islam | 92 | 3 | Shima Akter | 104 | 4 | Imran Hossain | 156 | 5 | Md. Tareq Hossain | 178 |

Definition of overcrowding:
According to the World Health Organization, overcrowding refers to the situation in which more people are living within a single dwelling than there is space for, so that movement is restricted, privacy secluded, hygiene impossible, rest and sleep difficult. The terms crowding and overcrowding are often used interchangeably to refer to the same condition. The effects on quality of life due to crowding may be due to children sharing a bed or bedroom, increased physical contact, lack of sleep, lack of privacy, poor hygiene practices and an inability to care adequately for sick household members. While population density is an objective measure of number of people living per unit area, overcrowding refers to people's psychological response to density. But, definitions of crowding used in statistical reporting and for administrative purposes are based on density measures and do not usually incorporate people’s perceptions of crowding.
The social and psychological effects of overcrowding:
The social and psychological effects of overcrowding can be summarized as follows:
Health effects:
Overcrowding poses serious direct and indirect health risks to all segments of the population, particularly the elderly, young children, and the disabled: * overcrowding results in insufficient ventilation in homes, causing or exacerbating respiratory illness; * susceptibility to disease, the severity of…...

Similar Documents

How Does Media Affect Us

...We humans are a bunch of manipulatable species where the media feeds off this ever-growing trait that lies within us all. It affects us in so many ways both consciously and otherwise, where half the time we aren't aware of what it is doing to us. The biggest tool in the media that generates revenue by the millions everyday, is advertising. It is a creature like no other in the media world, that reaps in the big bucks. We'll take a look at how the media affects our culture by an overview of the pros and cons. How Does Media Affect Cultures The media affects people in varied ways, some of which are good while others aren't as pretty. Let's take a look at the good and bad side of media's influence on culture. ✔ +tive Aspects ✘ -tive Aspects The media has its way of showing us constructive information when it comes to news channels, travel and other educational shows. Kids benefit from watching these, since it can boost self-esteem, heighten interest levels in a particular subject, or encourage them to ask relevant questions. Violence is a major factor when it comes to media, being a potentially dangerous instigator when it comes to young audiences. Kids are influenced easily by what they see on television or the Internet, mimicking such acts (if not as extreme, though on the lines of violence) on elders, or kids their age. We have a sense of what is happening around us, with a fair insight about how things work elsewhere on the globe. We can view the world through......

Words: 648 - Pages: 3

How Does Culture Affect Work

...Individuals, who are born rich, will consider pursuing their hobbies into work. They start their own fashion line, or perfumes, become a singer or actor, but all this is considered work. Different cultures look at work differently. I was born and raised in India. Growing up, friends, relatives and neighbors all at some point of time dreamt about coming to America, the land of opportunities. I knew a few people who came here to work, and heard stories from them about how the working environment in America is different from that in India. It made me want to come here and take advantage of the opportunities out here and make a name for myself. When I first came here and started working at the hospital, I came across various cultures, but all had one thing in common, they all worked hard. There was no job that was inferior to the others. EVS worker sat and ate lunch in the same cafeteria as the director of nursing. Director of Engineering was good friends with the cashier in the cafeteria. It was just amazing to see how everyone was called by their names, not their position in the hospital. It was a place where employees could socially interact. Employees were getting invited for baby showers, birthdays, graduation and sometimes they just wanted to get together without any reason. Employees worked to get away from home, to not be alone at home. When I first started to work back in 2003 at Garden Grove Hospital, an older gentleman worked as a volunteer. He sat at the front......

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

How Does Change in Management Affects Employee Morale

...How does change in management affects employee morale (confidence, drive, spirit)? As the world changes, many organization may create changes to their company structure in order to remain successful and look good amongst shareholders. These organizational changes may be beneficial for the company overall. However, it may affect the remaining employee’s morale. Some organizations changes such as layoffs, reduce work hours, a stagnate in benefits increases and rewards may result in management trying to figure out a way to motivate and gain employees trust and loyalty. Layoffs When an organization experiences a downturn in the economy, they may be force to perform employee layoffs. Organizations such as the Boeing Company announced in September 2001, that they will be cutting 10,000 jobs which is caused by the U.S. airlines to decrease operational capacity by about 20% due to traffic reductions. Airlines are expected to park older aircraft and defer deliveries of newly built transports as they trim their operational fleets (Smith B. (2001)). The Boeing Company is an American multinational aerospace and defense corporation that was founded in 1916 and is the largest exporter by value in the United States (Smith B. (2001)). This layoffs will created a shortage of aerospace jobs and has created a tough hiring environment for unemployed workers. Brockner, J. (1992) stated that “if the layoffs are mismanaged, thereby hampering survivors' productivity and morale, then the......

Words: 1417 - Pages: 6

How Neurotransmission Affects Human Behavior

...a neurotransmitter that affects sleep, arousal, dreaming, anxiety, and the regulation of mood, sensitivity to pain, and appetite. Low levels of serotonin can lower pain tolerance, cause lower back problems, mood swings, and increase dreaming. Low levels of serotonin have also been associated with negative moods such as panic, fear, pessimism, obsession, and low self-esteem. High levels of serotonin can generally cause a “feel-good” state, but excessive amounts can be lethal. It can lead to “the serotonin syndrome”, which includes fever, coma, seizures, cardiovascular collapse, and death. Additionally, there are drugs that can mimic serotonin such as LSD. In doing so, it gives a state of bliss, but also leads to hallucinations because of over-stimulating neurons, which can be dangerous. Dr. Marrku Linnoila conducted a study regarding serotonin and human behavior. He examined 1043 arsonists in New York prisons and psychiatric hospitals. He discovered that those who committed crimes impulsively had low serotonin levels, while those who had the motive of money had regular levels of serotonin. Additionally, he studied 36 prisoners who had committed impulsive, violent crimes. He found that those who acted aggressively more times in their life had lower levels of serotonin, demonstrating a negative correlation between the two. By demonstrating the dangers of low levels of serotonin, Linnoila showed that neurotransmission plays a large part in affecting human behavior....

Words: 305 - Pages: 2

How Does Nihilism Affect Hedonism?

...How does Nihilism affect Hedonism? Farid Guzman BKvt.3 Hedonism and Nihilism are two incredibly interesting philosophies, especially when studied in contrast to each other. Although by the simplest definitions they are opposites, they actually have a lot in common. In fact, it s entirely possible for one to occur as a result of the other. Both are very common in modern Western society, although for the most part extreme hedonists or nihilists are almost unheard of. Even thought we don’t normally pay attention to it, we all have Nihilistic and Hedonistic tendencies at various times throughout our lives. Nihilism is the belief that nothing we do, own or believe is of any value. It is the belief that we are worthless and that life has no purpose. It comes across as a very dark, empty way of life, yet we all embrace it in small ways. For example, someone may deem voting worthless, arguing that their political choices won’t affect anything. This, on a small scale, is Nihilism. It's a common assumption that without religious moral codes people will behave in a dishonest, violent and otherwise anti-social manner. Yet, the most pious and devout believers still lie, cheat, steal and kill; an open non-believer could do no worse. And the dishonest and anti-social behavior of believers exploiting religious morality are all the more malevolent because they do it under the cover of “righteousness”. The fact is that religion, and the morality it attempts to conclude, is actually...

Words: 1590 - Pages: 7

How Does the Traffic Affect Our Health

...Article #1: How Does Traffic Affect Our Health? Many of people do not like to drive in heavy traffic. It is such a struggle in everyday life and it is bad for people’s mental, emotional, and physical health. In 2011, the from Texas Transportation Institute at Texas A&M University states that Americans burn through 2.9 billion gallons of fuel and spend $121 billion of people’s hard-earned money from driving in stop-and-go traffic on highways. Moreover, American Heart Association also find the link between traffic and heart attacks. People with heart disease are more likely to have heart attack symptom occurred in traffic. Riding a bike or taking public transportation is other forms of exposure to traffic. Any form of transportation in traffic is associated with a 3.2 times higher risk of heart attack than any other time during the day. This may create a great amount of stress to people. Billions of people are on antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs to treat stress symptoms. The experts teach people the ways to avoid traffic. First, move to some places where have less traffics. Second, move closer to where the job is or change job if possible. Last, eat healthfully and relax for a few minutes before heading out. Breathe deeply but make sure it is coming in and going out through the heart area. There are also some inner-ease techniques that may follow. First, identify feelings and admit what you really feel like. Second, breathe deeply through heart with comfortable rhythm.......

Words: 750 - Pages: 3

How Does Change Affect the People at Work?

...Q.1 How does change affect people at work? Managing Change : Change is Charming Embrace it ! A change means any process involving a difference in some feature of an organization at two points in time. Change is a fact of life for any organization. It is unavoidable that all organizations need to change their practice time to time as per requirement to remain in competitive market. In current scenario the organization who have made the changes as per current requirement are succeed in the market. Change can be either planned or emergent. In planned change there is a sequence of steps but in emergent change is not simply chaotic change. It takes place in incremental and gradual ways on an ongoing basis. Employees have a more proactive role to play in the change process. Many organizations practice a mixture of both planned and emergent change.   When the people in organization realize that their current organizational culture required to transform to support the organization’s success and progress, change can happened but it is not so easy. Change can be affect the people by following ways 1. Fear of the unknown 2. Fear of failure 3. Disagreement with the need for change 4. Losing something of valu 5. Leaving a comfort zone 6. False beliefs 7. Misunderstanding and lack of trust 8. Inertia 9. Job insecurity 10. Feel job pressures 11. Loss of commitment to the organization 12. Survival problem in changed situation 13.......

Words: 908 - Pages: 4

How Does Technology Affect Political Participation

...How does technology affect political participation Introduction 3 Evolution of social media since 2000 3 Use of social media during Arab Spring 4 Hong Kong Protest 5 Use of Social Media During the Quebec Student Strikes in 2012 6 Social Media in 2015 Political Campaigns & Using Technology to Increase Voter Turnout 8 Conclusion : Does social media actually affect political participation Yes or No. 11 Appendix A 12 Appendix B 13 References 14 Introduction Social media is a part of the lives of the majority of the population today. Developed countries and developing countries alike have a variety of uses and applications that aid in day-to-day activities and communications. In this paper, we focus on the use of social media and the effects it has on political participation. We will look at popular social media sites including Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, and explore how their evolution is affecting political participation. Using the historical examples of Arab Spring, the Hong Kong protest of 2014, the Quebec student strikes of 2012, and the recent Canadian Federal Election, we will highlight the importance of social media and its uses to influence and encourage political participation during each event. Evolution of social media since 2000 The expansion of the Internet during the 21st century, as well as the development and spread of mobile phone technology, has enabled and promoted the......

Words: 3349 - Pages: 14

How Does Gadget Affect the Behavior of Teenagers?

...INTRODUCTION There’s not a single aspect of the human experience that hasn’t been touched by technology. Everything from industry, to medicine, to how we work has been fundamentally reshaped by the technologies which emerged in the second half of the 20th century (Hughes, 2014). Technologies include electronic gadgets which are the instruments that can perform many activities at a time with vast speed & makes the hard work efficient one. There are many electronic gadgets, which we are using in everyday life such as laptop, television, mobile, IPad, GoPro, etc. These instruments help us mainly by making easy paper work, entertainment, and for communication. It is said that electronics gadgets changed the world and is now the most developed by many. The teenagers are mostly the users of electronic gadgets. Nearly one in four teenagers are ‘almost constantly’ online as their lives are swallowed up ever more by their mobile phones, a study has revealed. Some 24 per cent of 13 to 17-year-olds admitted they were continuously checking their devices, including when they were at school. Nine in teenagers also confessed to going online every day as they were unable to resist the lure of Facebook and Instagram. The addiction of gadgets has been such among one and all that it has become unthinkable of a life without a gadget. The effect of these gadgets has been tremendous, and it is often debated that whether the impact that it has made on the youth is a positive or negative......

Words: 380 - Pages: 2

How Does Littering Affect Marine Wildlife?

...How does littering affect marine wildlife? Littering has become a much bigger problem in the world than it used to be. It has begun to even affect the wildlife around us all, especially marine wildlife. The litter has been getting into the water from many different ways, it can be flushed down the toilet, left on the road and washed into drains and waterways when it rains, and the most common way would be dropped directly into the water by boaters. Plastics have the most affects on the marine wildlife and the plastic makes up over 60% of marine debris. Plastics are also the longest lasting. A plastic bag will last 200 to 400 years, where a plastic bottle takes about 450 years to fully break down. These plastics are not only outliving the marine wildlife but it is also killing them. In August of 2000 there was a whale found washed up on the shore near Cairns, Australia. When they did an autopsy on the whale to find out why it had washed up onto the shore they found its stomach was tightly packed with different kinds of plastics. Almost 200 square feet of plastic supermarket bags, food packages, bottles, and more was the cause of that whale’s death. Marine animals mistake plastic for food and they eat it, most do not have issues when it comes to eating it, but digesting it is the problem. Food needs to break down before it can be fully digested and these plastics will not break down causing it to fill up more and more until the creature dies. Turtles are one of the more......

Words: 544 - Pages: 3

How Does Stress Affect You?

...what causes stress for one person may not even slightly affect that next. Trying to group all people into one specific stress group would be like trying to fit a square peg into a round hole, it just doesn't work. Most of us found that out when we were toddlers. Something that stood out to me in the author's description of how you handle stress is the response you give to someone who notices you looked stressed. For example do you find yourself always telling friends and family that “I have a lot of nervous energy, that's all”? People that respond with that answer haven't fully come to grips with the fact that they show a nervous energy when they are stressed and that it is obvious to those you are close to. The first step in alleviating stress would be to admit that you do have stress and that it is okay to talk to people about it. The 8 tips for managing stress that are mentioned in the article are: 1. Get moving. Exercise releases endorphins that boost your mood and make you feel good. 2. Engage socially. Social engagement is the quickest way, most efficient way to rein in stress and avoid overreacting to internal or external events that you perceive as threatening. 3. Avoid unnecessary stress. When handling predictable stressors it is suggested that you either change the situation or change your reaction. 4. Alter the situation. Express your feelings instead of bottling them up. 5. Adapt to the stressor. How you think can have a profound effect on your stress......

Words: 676 - Pages: 3

How Does Country Culture Affect Motivation Efforts

...How Does Country Culture Affect Motivation Efforts Abstract: This thesis focuses on the influence of different country cultures on motivation by giving the definition of motivation, explaining two types of motivation, and comparing the cultural differences between China and the USA and at the same time tries to apply all the findings into human resource management in modern companies around the world. The key point of this thesis is the way country cultures affect intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Introduction: With the rapid development of globalization process, the economic exchanges between different countries are increasing. Social cultures vary greatly from country to country. So the motivations can be affected distinctly in different culture. In the 21st century, the competition among enterprises has turned into human resources. Therefore the motivations of human are significant. Human Resource Management is getting more important in business nowadays, because people and their knowledge are the most important aspects affecting the productivity of the company. 1. Country culture can affect motivation: According to web, motivation is the explanation about human behavior, such as actions, desires, and needs and which can also be defined as one's direction to behavior or the reason people repeat a behavior, which can be generally divided into two types: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Just as its name implies, intrinsic motivation means the......

Words: 1657 - Pages: 7

How Does Change Affect People at Work?

...How does change affect people at work? What are some of the current forces for change in the workplace? What are the implications for HR managers? Introduction Organizational changes do not appear from themselves. For any process of performing something, there is a reason, and the process is the result of that reasons. Increasing globalization, rapid technological advancement, changing economic conditions and organization’s financial performance are some of the current forces that cause change in organizations. Current forces for change in the workplace 1. Globalization Globalization on one hand creates more opportunities as there are more potential customers around the world. However, it also means there will be fierce competition, as local companies have to compete with foreign companies as well. In terms of the organization’s structure and the human capitals, globalization intensified the need for more responsive and flexible organizations and employees. Globalization has also led to diversification of the labour poll. Companies can locate or relocate to where the tax laws are most advantageous and where skilled, cost-effective labor is most readily available. Workloads can be spread over several time zones to cut production costs and facilitate delivery schedules. Many organizations started to offshore or exporting jobs from developed to undeveloped countries for the reason of lowering the labor costs and exploiting new opportunities (Babcock 2004).......

Words: 2194 - Pages: 9

How Does Inflation Affect Economic Growth

...  HOW DO IN W OES NFLAT TION AFFE ECT ECO ONOM GROW MIC G WTH? EC CON30 01 ASSO OC.PRO OF.DR Ayla OĞUŞ O Gör rkem To opuz 07 7020111 13       A Abstract t; T This pape examine relation er es nship betw ween infla ation ,defl lator and current GDP o econom growth with usi econometric tec on mic h ing chniques w that provide with p approp priate proc cedures fo estimati and in or ion nference.Fo many c or country, in nflation has an importan effect in econom situatio n nt n mic on.Moreov ver,inflatio is used for to on d see how much countries developed. w d .But in my case i us inflatio for how much y sed on w it effec cted econo omic grow wth.And a also i follo up oth variabl with in ow her les nflation to show how the effect economic g w ey growth. T mode include a poten The el es ntial impa of inf act flation on growth ,current , GDP, inflation effect on consume prices via anuua % valu and in er al ues nflation on deflator(an nnual %). effect o GDP d T mode highlig The el ghts if inf flation inc creses dir rectly ther is a negative re n impact on grow t wth.When inflation above th percent he tage of … …then gro owth is affect in a nega ative way.Below tha rate inf at flation does not hav any ef ve ffect on h y ve tly e growth or it may even hav a slight positive effect. S So,in this paper inc clude both negative and posi h e itive affec of inflation on ct econom grow but mostly neg mic wth m gative aff fect, and also incl lude time series e eviden about how......

Words: 3473 - Pages: 14

How Does Physicality Affect Identity

...Matingou EN 105 February 16th, 2009 How Does Physicality Affect Identity? Human being is used to develop his identity by seeing what brings him closer and make him different from his fellows, the society and his family. The identity is the recognition of what we are, by itself or by the others of the society. A big part of their identity results from their outside appearance which, during the adolescence, sets a lot of importance. It is necessary to say that during this period, the body is largely transformed. Generally, with this transformation also comes a redefining of the person. Who is this new reflection in front of me? Who is this young lady, this young man? Where is the child whom I was? This transformation brings the teenagers to ask more questions on their biological origin. Do you think having an athletic body has the same impacts on identity than a fat one? Definitely not! An athletic body generally creates an attraction physical and sexual with the opposite sex (and nowadays, with the person of same sex).he matter of fact, having an “athletic body” is a sign of success in our society. So a person with an athletic body got more confidence and assurance in himself because he believes he belongs to the right group. A person, who knows that he is handsome and attracts people of opposite sex, will start to change his personality. He is not going to act like a desperate person but as confident person. Furthermore, being physically strong brings respect and......

Words: 740 - Pages: 3