How Effective Have Harm Minimisation Interventions Been in Reduction of Hepatitis C

In: Other Topics

Submitted By Tenjy2
Words 4151
Pages 17
How effective have harm reduction interventions been in reduction of Hepatitis C incidence among Injecting Drug Users in the UK?

1.0 Introduction
The prevalence of Hepatitis C (HCV) internationally is largely unknown mainly due to the fact that most individuals have no symptoms in the early stages of the infection. The WHO estimates the figure at 170 million people infected with HCV and it is estimated that approximately 3-4 million people are newly infected each year . Injecting drug users (IDUs) are at greatest risk from HCV through the sharing of injecting paraphernalia.

In the UK estimates from the Health Protection Agency (HPA) data has the number of people chronically infected with HCV at 216000 of which 90% are attributable to IDUs with over 40% of the IDU population being HCV antibody positive . Some estimates of numbers with HCV in the UK suggest about 500000 .

In 2010, new HCV infections diagnosed in the UK was 10,381 of which there were 7384, 106, 2129, and 312 in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales respectively . There appears to be higher rate of transmission among IDU now than a decade ago; 23% compared to 12% in 2000
Although UK is classified as a low prevalence country for HCV; The HCV poses numerous challenges for public health in terms of potentially preventable mortality and morbidity. According to NICE guidance, it would cost the NHS about £1.6 billion to treat all Hepatitis C patients. The cost therefore of failing to diagnose and treat existing patients could be approximately £4-£8 billion over the next decade

As the most infected in the UK are IDUs, the strategy is to target this risk group by making them more aware, offering proactive testing to ensure that those who are undiagnosed are and get necessary treatment early. It is essential to have in place robust surveillance systems and in the UK the harm…...

Similar Documents

There Have Been Many Theories Regarding How the Pyramids at Giza Were Constructed

...There are many theories as to how the pyramids at Giza were constructed. Most experts agree that they were constructed as burial monuments for pharaohs, but “how” these ancient people constructed monuments of such great size without modern machinery is a mystery which is still being debated. The pyramids of Giza are the only surviving Ancient Wonder of the World and one of the most famous tourist attractions in the modern world. They are some of the oldest divine sites in our index and certainly among of the most impressive. The Pyramids of Ancient Egypt were built as tombs for Kings and Queens, and it was the exclusive privilege to have a Pyramid tomb. However, this tradition only applied in the Old and Middle Kingdoms. Today there are more than 93 Pyramids in Egypt; the most famous ones are those at Giza. Even in scientific circuses there are still a lot of theory about how and whom the pyramid was constructed by. According to ancient Greek historian Herodotus, Khufu enslaved his people to build his pyramid. Most of the modern Egyptologists believe it was built instead by tens of thousands of skilled workers, both men and women. There is another theory from Herodotus, which states that machines formed of short wooden planks were used to raise the stones. “After laying the stones for the base, they raised the remaining stones to their places by means of machines formed of short wooden planks. The first machine raised them from the ground to the top of the......

Words: 492 - Pages: 2

Treatment with Effective Interventions

...▪ Be free of panic episodes (100%) ▪ Recognize and plan for top five anxiety-provoking situations ▪ Learn two new ways of coping with routine stressors ▪ Report feeling more positive about self and abilities during therapy sessions ▪ Develop strategies for thought distraction when fixating on the future Behavior Problems Goal: Improve overall behavior (and attitude/mood), or Maintain positive behavior (and attitude/mood) ▪ Be free of _____ behavior ▪ Develop a reward system to address ___ (target problem) ▪ Learn two ways to manage frustration in a positive manner ▪ Share two positive experiences each week in which X is proud of how he/she has behaved ▪ Stay free of fights ▪ Stay free of drug & alcohol use and abuse (100%) ▪ Be free of violent behavior ▪ Be able to keep hands and feet to self ▪ Be able to express anger in a productive manner without destroying property or personal belongings ▪ Be free of threats to self and others ▪ Complete daily tasks (e.g. chores, pet care, self care, etc.) ▪ Avoid leaving clothing/toys/personal stuff all around the house ▪ Listen to parent and follow simple directions with one prompt ▪ Put all dishes, glasses, cups, and food items back in the kitchen after meals/snacks ▪ Clean up after himself/herself ▪ Admit......

Words: 3267 - Pages: 14

Focusing on Effective Intervention

...Intervention 1 Focusing on Effective Intervention Brandi Steiger CRJ 201 Introduction to Criminal Justice Instructor Erick Funn February 04, 2013 Intervention 2 Focusing on Effective Intervention Effective intervention is very important when it comes to reduced reoffending. Principles of effective intervention is what psychologists developed and became organizing concepts of community corrections. The “what works” movement in corrections include four principles of the intervention which are risk principle, criminogenic need principle, treatment principle, and fidelity principle. The following paragraphs will discuss the importance and conclusioin of effective intervention. The first general principle is known as the risk principle. This includes and targets high-risk offenders. Programs usually are done with the use of risk-assessments for programs to be effective. “Once offenders’ levels of risk are known, programs can target those at the greatest risk of reoffending for the most intenstve treament” (Wright, J., 2012). Research proves that targeting low-risk offenders is less effective than targeting high-risk offenders. Based on risk level, matching treatment to intervention and treatment is the bane of corrections. As a result of an individual subjected to intensive intervention with low-risk, the offender’s behavior can worsen. Behavior can worsen when high-risk offenders and low-risk offenders......

Words: 768 - Pages: 4

Harm Reduction

...Harm Reduction Harm Reduction Harm reduction refers to policies, programmers and practices that aim to reduce the harms associated with the use of psychoactive drugs in people unable or unwilling to stop. The defining features are the focus on the prevention of harm, rather than on the prevention of drug use itself, and the focus on people who continue to use drugs. Harm reduction began to be discussed frequently after the threat of HIV spreading among and from injecting drug users was first recognized. However, similar approaches have long been used in many other contexts for a wide range of drugs. Harm reduction complements approaches that seek to prevent or reduce the overall level of drug consumption. It is based on the recognition that many people throughout the world continue to use psychoactive drugs despite even the strongest efforts to prevent the initiation or continued use of drugs. Harm reduction accepts that many people who use drugs are unable or unwilling to stop using drugs at any given time. Access to good treatment is important for people with drug problems, but many people with drug problems are unable or unwilling to get treatment. Furthermore, the majority of people who use drugs do not need treatment. There is a need to provide people who use drugs with options that help to minimize risks from continuing to use drugs, and of harming themselves or......

Words: 553 - Pages: 3

Developing Effective Diabetes Care Interventions in Rural Populations

...| Developing Effective Diabetes Care Interventions in Rural Populations Salem International University Traci L French May 20, 2013 Abstract: Diabetes mellitus wreaks a high toll on Americans in regards to shortened life expectancy, decreased quality of life and staggering health care expenses. Prevalence of this disease in some populations can reach nearly 30%, with 11.3% of the total population affected in 2010 (Texas Diabetes Institute, San Antonio, TX). In Arkansas, prevalence rates of the illness in some counties exceed 20% (Bradley, 2010). Recent statistics show that annual direct expenditures on diabetes care total $116 billion dollars per year with an additional $58 billion per year in indirect costs due to lost productivity and increased mortality (Texas Diabetes Institute, San Antonio, TX). The goal of this paper is to assess the development and implementation of current interventional strategies for diagnosing diabetes mellitus in affected populations in the southeastern United States. Outcomes of current programs will then be evaluated on a local, regional and national level. The final area of study will examine possible improvements to existing programs using culturally sensitive methodology to increase access to care within these populations and improve clinical outcomes while following evidence-based care guidelines. Diabetes mellitus is a costly illness, both in the number of lives affected as well as actual expenditures on health care and lost......

Words: 2976 - Pages: 12

: Describe Compare and Contrast the Traditional Abstinence Model of Addiction Treatment with the Modern Harm Reduction Model in the Context of Counselling a Heroin Using Client Who Is Hiv or Hep-C Positive

...treatment with the modern harm reduction model in the context of counselling a heroin using client who is HIV or Hep-C positive I declare that this assignment is entirely my own work and that all sources are credited. Introduction: In this essay I am going to first define abstinence, harm reduction, heroin and HIV. Then i’m going to compare and contrast the abstinence model versus the harm reduction model in relation to a person who uses heroin and has also HIV under the counselling context. Definitions: The Abstinence Model: The term 12 step applies to a number of self-help groups which have grown from the original alcoholics anonymous movement. 12-step groups are fellowships of men and women who meet regularly to support each other in their efforts to achieve and maintain abstinence. Groups are run by the members themselves who are not professional counsellors. They have a spiritual foundation are not affiliated with any organised religion. (McMurran, 1994) For the purposes of this essay groups like NA(Narcotics Anonymous) would represent a traditional abstinence group and the Minnesota Model would represent a counselling approach in relation to addiction counselling. The Harm Reduction Model: The idea of harm reduction first emerged explicitly in Dutch drug policy during the 1970s and 1980s from concern about the social integration of people who use drugs into society with a goal of maximizing the contact that problematic drug users have with social,......

Words: 2245 - Pages: 9

How and Why Have Feminists Been Critical of the ‘Public/Private’ Divide?

...How and why have feminists been critical of the ‘public/private’ divide?  The public/private divide is a particular concern for feminists. The public/private divide is a divide between the public sphere of work and politics usually dominated by men, and the private area of home and family in which typical gender roles are applied. This divide can be said to create the problem of gender inequality, as women are often pushed into being a housewife due to the societal norms; they are heavily discouraged from breaking out into the public sphere and beginning an alternative career. In this way, patriarchy has been created – whilst the women traditionally stay at home, the men are therefore the ones who are earning money and occupying important positions within society. Feminists believe that this gender inequality should be overthrown, although different types of feminists have different views on the subject. Liberal feminists wish to keep the public and private spheres separate. They do not want to completely remove the divide between the two, because they believe in maintaining a woman's personal freedom of choice between a domestic or public role. Moreover, they believe that men and women do have different natures – women have a natural leaning towards the domestic life and motherhood, rather than the more traditionally male public career. However, liberal feminists do believe that there is a need for reforms in the public sphere, for example equal pay is one of their......

Words: 581 - Pages: 3

Hepatitis C

...Hepatitis C is inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. About 3.2 million people in the U.S. are infected with hepatitis C, according to the National Institutes of Health. However, most don't know they have it because the virus causes few symptoms. There are at least six different subtypes of the hepatitis C virus. While no one type is more dangerous than another, they do respond differently to treatment. Hepatitis C type 1 is the most common type in the U.S. Unfortunately, the medications we have don't work as well with type 1 as with other subtypes of the virus. Recommended Related to Hepatitis Understanding Hepatitis C -- Symptoms Hepatitis C is a sneaky virus. About 80% of infected people don't have any symptoms of the virus, and their liver shows only a little damage. Many of these people are diagnosed with hepatitis C after showing abnormal liver enzymes on routine blood tests. Other people -- about 10% to 20% -- develop cirrhosis after having the hepatitis C infection for 20 or 30 years. This is when the normal functioning liver is replaced by scar tissue. A smaller number of people develop liver cancer after infection... Read the Understanding Hepatitis C -- Symptoms article > > What Are the Symptoms of Hepatitis C? When hepatitis C symptoms are present, they may include: * Jaundice (a condition causing yellow eyes and skin, as well as dark urine) * Abdominal pain * Loss of appetite * Nausea * Fatigue   How Is......

Words: 571 - Pages: 3

Hepatitis-C

...Hepatitis-C is an infectious disease primarily affecting the liver. It is spread through blood-to-blood contact, generally associated with intravenous drugs, transfusions, or badly sterilized medical equipment. Hepatitis-C is the leading cause of liver transplants. Routine screening for hepatitis C is not typically performed unless you think you have come in to contact with a person infected with hepatitis C or if you were born between 1945 and 1965 (baby boomer screening). (WebMD, 2014). Treatment requires close monitoring with frequent blood tests and may require additional medications to combat side effects. Treatment is usually provided by someone experienced with treatment of hepatitis C, such as a hepatologist or infectious diseases specialist. However, due to the increasing number of people infected with Hepatitis C, more and more primary care doctors are being trained to manage Hepatitis C. People who may be at risk for hepatitis C are those who: * Have been on long-term kidney dialysis * Have regular contact with blood at work (for instance, as a health care worker) * Have unprotected sexual contact with a person who has hepatitis C (this risk is much less common than hepatitis B, but the risk is higher for those who have many sex partners, already have a sexually transmitted disease, or are infected with HIV) * Inject street drugs or share a needle with someone who has hepatitis C * Received a blood transfusion before July 1992 * Received a......

Words: 498 - Pages: 2

Epidemiology : Hepatitis C in the Veteran Population

...Epidemiology: Hepatitis C in the Veteran Population NUR / 408 July 7, 2014 Deborah Nallo Introduction Hepatitis C (HCV) is highly prevalent within the Veteran population. HCV is a major public health concern because of the debilitating effects associated with the virus. HCV results in increased mortality and morbidity rates resulting from the acute and chronic effects of the virus. The most common transmission of HCV occurs through injection drug use, injuries resulting from needle sticks and the lack of infection control in healthcare facilities. The transmission of HCV can also occur through sexual contact between individuals who have the human immunodeficiency virus, and HCV virus, tattoos that were not professionally done and HCV infected mothers who have transmitted the virus to their newborn babies. The hepatitis C virus is the most common blood-borne virus in the United States. An estimated 3.2 million people in the United States have chronic hepatitis C. Most are unaware of their infection. Each year, about 17,000 Americans become infected with hepatitis C ("Centers for Disease Control and Prevention", n.d.). The veteran population has a higher rate of HCV exposure and infection when compared to the general population. Many of the individuals who are infected with the HCV virus are unaware of their infection and therefore they do not receive the necessary treatment. Individuals with HCV are at increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinomas and......

Words: 2180 - Pages: 9

Harm Reduction

...Harm reduction work toward in keeping people safe and minimize death, disease, and injury from high risk behavior, especially psychoactive substance use. Harm reduction has many benefits for people who consumed substances, their families, and communities. Research shows harm reduction activities can,Reduce HIV infection and hepatitis, overdose deaths and other early deaths among people who use substances, injection substance use in public places, and reduce the number of used needles in public, the sharing of needles and other substance use equipment, it can Educate about safer injecting and reduce injecting frequency;As well as, Educate about safer sex and sexual health and increase condom use;It Magnify crime and increase employment among people who use substances;At the end it Increased the referrals to treatment programs and health and social services. Moreover, Harm reduction is giving control back to the person and really hard in getting help to be a different person and be the person he or she was when he or she was happy. But if this is the way in getting our self together and be the person we always dream so be it. The drawbacks of harm reduction is that it does nothing to disrupt the current black-market drug trade; the one that are using it are still forced to deal with criminals to get drugs, placing them at risk of theft, fraud, violence, contaminated, inconsistent drugs while......

Words: 773 - Pages: 4

What Are Civil Rights and How Far Have They Been Achieved?

...Supreme Court; Sonia Sotomayor. Further to this, crucial Supreme Court decisions have reinforced civil rights in America, starting with Brown v. Board in 1954, moving to women's rights to privacy in the Roe v. Wade decision of 1973, and the upholding of gay rights with Lawrence v. Texas in 2004 and affirmative action with Grutter v. Bollinger in 2003. All of these show protection of civil rights to minority groups in society. In other positive changes, equal pay legislation was initiated by the Obama administration in 2009 with the Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act and in 2013 the Violence Against Women Act provides more support for vulnerable females. The repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell by Obama and his ordering of Supreme Court challenges against the Defense of Marriage Act and the Arizona SB1070, all suggest civil rights have been achieved. However, civil rights are an ongoing battle and groups are always required to defend their rights from erosions. The Arizona SB1070 'Stop and Search' bill was upheld by the Supreme Court, allowing police to stop and search Latinos at will. This, added to the lack of recognition via an immigration reform bill for the 12 million undocumented Latinos currently living in America represents a genuine threat to civil rights. The lack of an Equal Rights Amendment for women, which failed ratification by the states in the 1970s is another area where civil rights have not been fully achieved. The state initiatives seen in Ohio, Texas, Florida and......

Words: 515 - Pages: 3

Prohibition and Harm Reduction

... Prohibition and Harm Reduction Bryon Wilson BEHS 364 August 5th 2014 There have been two different strategies of society dealing with alcohol; harm reduction and zero tolerance. The method of harm reduction is focused primarily on reducing the negative effect of alcohol society and the people who drink. This is usually implemented by our government. They create policies and social programs that can treat those afflicted with alcoholism. There are several ways that this can be accomplished, such as limiting access, and taxing the substance to reduce demand. There are also social programs put in place that can help educate, rehabilitate and help recover. This a strategy compared to zero tolerance carries a unique ability to be tailored to suit individual needs as opposed to a one size fits all blanket policy. The harm reduction policy stands on a principle that alcoholism will not be completely eliminated so it would be more benefit to address the negative harms. For instance as alcoholism can be a major problem at work, some companies provide someone as an advocate and counsel. These counselors can work with them to modify behavior and reduce alcohol related incidents and further harm to their self on the job and in their personal life. That is something prohibition policies cannot do for an individual person. The proponents of zero tolerance see the alcoholic epidemic as a disease and therefore cannot allow continued usage if the person is to be treated and recover.......

Words: 902 - Pages: 4

Hepatitis C

...bringing to the forefront is Hepatitis C. It is an infection of the liver, which has many forms, type 1 being the most common in the U.S. I will start by introducing the history of the disease and give a description of the disease and it’s affects to the body.1. “The hepatitis C virus is an RNA virus that belongs to the family flaviviridae.”1. “HCV replicates in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes””1. Persistent infection appears to rely on rapid production of virus and continuous cell-to-cell spread, along with a lack of vigorous T-cell immune response to HCV antigens” Anatomy To better give a clear understanding of the failing organs I will address the body systems. I will further explain the anatomy of the systems that are involved. Transmission & Cause 1.“The transmission of HCV is primarily through exposure to infected blood. Risks for transmission include blood transfusion before 1992, intravenous drug use, high-risk sexual activity, solid organ transplantation from an infected donor”2.” the fact that the genetic information of the virus is stored in RNA, not DNA, has important consequences in the life cycle of the virus, and gives hepatitis C its dangerous ability to mutate.”2.” Hepatitis C, as an RNA virus, has a powerful reproductive strategy. Because it stores its information in a "sense" strand of RNA, the viral RNA itself can be directly read by the host cell's ribosomes, functioning like the normal mRNA present in the cell.”2. Hepatitis C is not spread......

Words: 733 - Pages: 3

Hepatitis C Facts

...Hepatitis C Non-A hepatitis; Non-B hepatitis Hepatitis C is a viral disease that leads to swelling (inflammation) of the liver. Causes, incidence, and risk factors Hepatitis C infection is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). People who may be at risk for hepatitis C are those who: * Have been on long-term kidney dialysis * Have regular contact with blood at work (for instance, as a health care worker) * Have unprotected sexual contact with a person who has hepatitis C (this risk is much less common than hepatitis B, but the risk is higher for those who have many sex partners, already have a sexually transmitted disease, or are infected with HIV) * Inject street drugs or share a needle with someone who has hepatitis C * Received a blood transfusion before July 1992 * Received a tattoo or acupuncture with contaminated instruments (the risk is very low with licensed, commercial tattoo facilities) * Received blood, blood products, or solid organs from a donor who has hepatitis C * Share personal items such as toothbrushes and razors with someone who has hepatitis C (less common) * Were born to a hepatitis C-infected mother (this occurs in about 1 out of 20 babies born to mothers with HCV, which is much less common than with hepatitis B) Symptoms Most people who were recently infected with hepatitis C do not have symptoms. About 1 in 10 have yellowing of the skin (jaundice) that gets better. Of people who get infected with hepatitis......

Words: 983 - Pages: 4