How Has the Greek Language Influenced the English Language?

In: English and Literature

Submitted By stefaniya
Words 908
Pages 4
Introduction
The research question is “How has the Greek language influenced the English language?”. We chose language as our subject because we were interested in how people developed a way in which we can communicate orally as well as express and comprehend written thoughts. We think that this topic is worth of study because we will investigate and understand how several English words have been influenced by the Greek language. Numerous words in English have Greek roots. The relevance of the question is to find out how the Greek language influenced and affected the English language.

Main
Ancient Greek Dialects
Different variants of the early Greek alphabet suited to local dialects. There were three major dialects in ancient Greece: Aeolic, Doric and Ionic (of which Attic was a branch). Each of these were from different tribes, the Aeolians lived in the islands of the Aegean, the Dorians, from the Greek coast of Peloponnese, including Crete, Sparta and other parts of West Coast Asia Minor. The Ionians settled in the West coast of Asia Minor including the Smyma.

Ancient Greek Language
The first Europeans to read and write with an Alphabet were the Ancient Greeks. The Ancient Greek language eventually led to all modern European languages.(In text ) The Greek language has a very long and rich history stretching all the way from the thirteenth century B.C. to the present.

Linear B (13th century B.C.) is the earliest form of the language. The first surviving script for Greek writing was the Linear B which was discovered in 1953. It was used for the archaic Mycenaean dialect. When Mycenaean civilization was destroyed, there was a period of roughly five hundred years, when writing was either not used, or either that there was nothing that survived.

Classical Greek is the form of Greek used by writers from Homer (8th century B.C.) through Pluto (4th…...

Similar Documents

The Development of the English Literary Language

...OF THE ENGLISH LITERARY (STANDARD) LANGUAGE ( From: I.R.Galperin. Stylistics. Moscow: Higher School, 1977. pp. 41-57) Up till now we have done little more than mention the literary (standard) language, which is one of the most important notions in stylistics and general linguistics. It is now necessary to elucidate this linguistic notion by going a little deeper into what constitutes the concept and to trace the stages in the development of the English standard language. This is necessary in order to avoid occasional confusion of terms differently used in works on the history, literature and style of the English language. Confusion between the terms "literary language" and "language of literature" is frequently to be met. Literary language is a historical category. It exists as a variety of the national language.' "It must be remembered," said A. M. Gorki, "that language is the creation of the people. The division of the language into literary and vernacular only means that there are, as it were, a rough unpolished tongue and one wrought by men-of-letters."1 The literary language is that elaborated form (variety) of the national language which obeys definite morphological, phonetic, syntactical, lexical, phraseological and stylistic norms2 recognized as standard and therefore acceptable in all kinds and types of discourse. It allows modifications but within the frame work of the system of established norms. It casts out some of the forms of language which......

Words: 8269 - Pages: 34

English Language

...2 Individual Project October 20, 2013 English Language I am choosing to use the English language of Britain for this paper mainly because I can speak it, read it, and understand it. Well modern English I can speak, read, and understand. I was in the Navy for 12 years. My job in the navy was a Hospital Corpsman. In the medical field we still use a lot of words that have Latin origins. This is the same generally speaking of the early English language. English broke into three categories when we are speaking about the history of the English language. There is Old English, Middle English, and Modern English. I think it funny how in the 1990’s everyone wanted tattoos of their own name on them in Old English. It is funny because if they actually tried to read some Old English they would have a hard time making any words out. So the beginning of the English language is Old English and it was developed by people of the Germanic tribes migrated to Britain. This happened before the 12th century. It had a lot of Latin, French, and Old Norse influence. While if you read it you may figure out a few words it is very different from today’s spoken language. You would know such words as he, him, for and some others. You could figure out such words as name, was, were, and come, these are just some examples. From the 12th century on into the 15th century they spoke Middle English. This has a lot more French and Latin influence than......

Words: 599 - Pages: 3

English Language

...English Language Forrest Partlow       Unemployment       HUMA215       Unit 2 Individual Project       October 20, 2013 English Language       I am choosing to use the English language of Britain for this paper mainly because I can speak it, read it, and understand it.   Well modern English I can speak, read, and understand.   I was in the Navy for 12 years.   My job in the navy was a Hospital Corpsman.   In the medical field we still use a lot of words that have Latin origins.   This is the same generally speaking of the early English language.       English broke into three categories when we are speaking about the history of the English language.   There is Old English, Middle English, and Modern English.   I think it funny how in the 1990’s everyone wanted tattoos of their own name on them in Old English.   It is funny because if they actually tried to read some Old English they would have a hard time making any words out.       So the beginning of the English language is Old English and it was developed by people of the Germanic tribes migrated to Britain.   This happened before the 12th century.   It had a lot of Latin, French, and Old Norse influence.   While if you read it you may figure out a few words it is very different from today’s spoken language.   You would know such words as he, him, for and some others.   You could figure out such words as name, was, were, and come, these are just some examples.       From the 12th century on into the 15th...

Words: 354 - Pages: 2

English Language

...English Language Importance Do you think learning English is important?English is currently the most wide spread language in the world, it is second only to Mandarin Chinese in terms of the amount of people which speak it, but second to none in terms of the number of people learning it. It is currently the primary language used on the World Wide Web, in the political and business arenas. It has even become the language of today's pop culture. So yes, I definitely think that learning English is important.While English may not have as large a quantity of speakers as Mandarin it is still more widespread and herein lays its importance. Mandarin Chinese is hardly spoken outside Chinese communities, however in many regions of the world where English is not the native language, it is still widely spoken and integrated in the curriculums of educational institutions. In many countries Malaysia, for example, where there various ethnic groups with their own unique language, English is used as a means of communications between all of them. So we see that the importance of English doesn't lie in the quantity of people that speak it but in way we use it. Today the USA's influence on world information is dominant, English, being their native tongue, the same is true for Britain. The music and other types of media that come out of these two countries are broadcast around the world. Most of the world's largest pop stars record English albums, which are played and requested in all the corners...

Words: 336 - Pages: 2

Culture Influenced by Language

...Language influences Culture in more ways than one. Language allows us to share perspectives, allows us to plan for the future, and allows us to make goals. By allowing us to do these things, we can redirect our behaviors to fit our cultural needs. We all have our personal points of views, which stem from the ways we were raised and the culture in which we were brought up. At birth we were nothing, unable to speak, untrained beings at the beginning of the world. As our textbook Essentials Of Sociology, 9th Edition, by James M. Henslin states on page 43, "Our words are the embodiment of our experiences, distilled into a readily exchangeable form, one that is mutually understandable to people who have learned that language." Without language, culture could not be formed as we could not present to each other our thoughts and ideas. Language also plays an important role in our future. Not just focusing on the past and the way our culture developed, but the times to come are dependent on our communication. "Without language, how could you ever plan future events?" (Stated in Essentials Of Sociology, 9th Edition, by James M. Henslin, again on page 43) We could convey messages, but agreement and changes in plans would be difficult to communicate without language. Goals and goal-directed behaviors can also be influenced by language. With language, we can also give a purpose for our plans rather than simply communicating the basics. Why are we striving for _____? This question...

Words: 338 - Pages: 2

English as a Language

...English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] It is an official language of almost 60 sovereign states and the most commonly spoken language in sovereign states including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and a number of Caribbean nations. It is the third-most-common native language in the world, after Mandarin and Spanish.[6] It is widely learned as a second language and is an official language of the European Union and of the United Nations, as well as of many world organisations. English arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England as a fusion of closely related dialects, now collectively termed Old English. These dialects had been brought to the south-eastern coast of Great Britain by Anglo-Saxons settlers by the 5th century. The word English is the modern spelling of englisc, the name used by the Angles and Saxons for their language, after the Angles' ancestral region of Angeln. The language was also influenced early on by the Old Norse language through Viking invasions in the 9th and 10th centuries. The Norman conquest of England in the 11th century gave rise to heavy borrowings from Norman French: thus a layer of elaborate vocabulary, particularly in the field of governance, and some Romance-language spelling conventions were added to what had by then become Middle English.[7] The Great Vowel Shift that began in the south of England in the 15th...

Words: 345 - Pages: 2

English Language

...A2 English Language Revision Guidance and Easter Work 2015 (1) Make sure you have your revision timetable worked out. Use calendar to plan work for different subjects (2) Make sure your folders/booklets/handouts are sorted out for: a. Language Diversity i. Language Change – over time (timelines, key events, language features, theories, standardisation etc) ii. Different varieties of English (American, Caribbean, Indian, theories, Kachru, divergence, creolisation, basilect, prestige forms, etc) b. Child Language Development i. Spoken Language (terms, theories, stages, etc). ii. Written language (terms, theories, stages, phonics, IPA etc). (3) For each area of the course, revise terminology, concepts, issues, theories etc (see overleaf). Booklets provide a very good starting point + VLE and links to helpful resources and sites. (4) Terminology and Method: For all questions you need to be able to use the Language Constituents and relate these to Context. So revision of Language Constituents, word classes, grammar etc is important eg you need to be quick and confident recognising features like imperatives, passive voice, noun phrase structure, different pronouns, modal verbs etc. And of course be able to comment on their effects: TERM – DEFINITION - EXAMPLE – COMMENT ON EFFECT [See the checklist overleaf.] (5) Theories and Issues. Read and makes notes on ‘Language: A Student Handbook’ (you have to give this book back after Easter). Particularly useful......

Words: 899 - Pages: 4

History of English Language

...LINGUISTIC SITUATION IN OLD ENGLISH AND MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD……………………………………………………………..5 1.1 THE DEVELOPMENT OF FUTHARK……………………………………5 1.1.1 THE RUNIC ALPHABET AS AN OLD GERMANIC WRITING TRADITION……………………………………………………………………6 1.1.2 OLD ENGLISH LITERATURE IN THE PERIOD OF ANGLO-SAXON ETHNIC EXTENSION…………………………………………………………7 1.2 LINGUISTIC SITUATION IN THE MIDDLE ENGLISH………………..11 1.2.1 LINGUISTIC SITUATION IN MEDIEVAL ENGLAND AFTER THE NORMAN CONQUEST……………………………………………….……….11 1.2.2 DIALECTAL DIVERSITY IN THE MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD.…...13 1.3 THE MIDDLE ENGLISH CORPUS……………………………………….15 1.3.1 GEOFFREY CHAUCER AND HIS LENDING SUPPORT OF THE LONDON STANDARD’S DIFFUSION……………………………………….17 1.3.2 THE ROLE OF THE PRINTING IN THE FORMATION OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE………………………………………………….…….19 1.3.3 PRINCIPAL MIDDLE ENGLISH WRITTEN RECORDS AS A REFLECTION OF ONGOING CHANGES IN STANDARDIZATION………25 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………….…………....28 REFERENCES………………………………………………………………….30 APPENDIX 1……………………………………………………………………33 INTODUCTION linguistic history english language The English language has had a remarkable history. When we first catch it in historical records, it is a language of none-too-civilized tribes on the continent of Europe along the North Sea. From those murky and undistinguished beginnings, English has become the most widespread language in the world, used by more peoples for more purposes than any language on Earth. The early part of the Modern English saw the......

Words: 9916 - Pages: 40

The English Language

...interests of the larger groups to which they belong" According to Redmond (2010) "young people are known to be some of the most likely to participate on some SNSs (e.g., Facebook's initial focus on college students and then high school students left out older people by design), suggesting that concentrating on adolescents and young adults is especially important if researchers are to gain a better understanding of how such sites are being incorporated into people's lives" (Hargittai, 2007). SNSs users can range from young people attending secondary school, college and university, and right up to adults. It is common for SNSs to have a minimum age requirement such as Facebook who advice users must be at least 13 years of age to create an account and become a member (Facebook, 2010). Further on in this study the results of a survey which was carried out will provide more detailed information on users of SNSs in South Africa. Read more: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/english-language/social-networking-sites-impact-language-standards-english-language-essay.php#ixzz3cxXRKLjS...

Words: 268 - Pages: 2

English Language

...obtained from the publisher in advance. iv Contents Acknowledgements iv Introduction 1 Practice Test 1 12 Practice Test 2 34 Practice Test 3 54 Practice Test 4 75 General Training Reading and Writing Modules Tapescripts Answer keys 94 107 130 Sample answer sheets 153 iii v Acknowledgements We would like to thank the staff and students of the following institutions for their assistance in trialling these materials: Wollongong English Language Centre; Australian College of English, Sydney; Hong Kong Polytechnic; Waratah Education Centre, Sydney; International House, Queensland; Milton English Language Centre, Sydney; Oxford Academy of English. In addition, a number of our non-English speaking friends were kind enough to trial the materials in their early formats The authors and publishers are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material. Focus magazine for the extract on pp. 20-21 from A spark, a flint: how fire lept to life; BBC WILDLIFE Magazine for the extract on pp. 24-5 from Showboat as Ark; The Guardian for the extract on pp. 28-9 from Architecture — Reaching for the Sky by Ruth Coleman and for the graphs on pp. 31 and 72; Geoff Maslen for the extract on pp. 40-41 from The Rights of the Left, published by Good Weekend magazine; National Geographic magazine for the extract and map on pp. 44-5 from America’s Beekeepers: Hives for Hire by Alan Mairson, National......

Words: 41994 - Pages: 168

Five Factors or Historical Events Which Influenced the English Language

...Five Factors or Historical Events which Influenced the English Language English belongs to the Indo-European family of languages as well as most of the European languages spoken today. Latin and the modern Romance languages, Greek, the Germanic languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Slavic, Baltic, and Celtic languages are a part of the Indo-European family. English is in the Germanic group of languages; West Germanic is the ancestor of modern Dutch, German, Flemish, Frisian and English. The Gaelic-speaking Celts were one of the earliest people to migrate westward and they were natives of the British Isles long before the English (McCrum 48). “The Celtic Britons had the misfortune to inhabit an island that was highly desirable for both its agriculture and for its minerals.”(p.52) The Angles, Saxons and the Jutes were the first invaders of the British Isles and they caused the Britons to flee to the west. The Angles, Saxons and the jutes mixed their different Germanic dialects and formed what linguists now refer to as Old English or Anglo-Saxon. “Englisc’ was Old English for English, and it comes from the name of the Angles. “The basic building blocks of an English sentence- the, is, you and- are Anglo-Saxon. It is impossible to write a modern sentence without using a feast of Anglo-Saxon words.”(p.58) The Anglo-Saxons were the first speakers of English, but the English they spoke is very much different from what we speak today and it is unintelligible to modern ears. This is......

Words: 2061 - Pages: 9

How Technology Has Changed Our Language

...How Technology Has Changed Our Language Internet Knowledge: Some words have taken on a very new meaning thanks to technology. Not very long ago, the word “tweet” referred simply to something that birds do. Now it is also used to represent the process of posting a 140 character message on the social network Twitter.  Social media’s been responsible for a lot of new words, for example tweeps, twitterverse and retweet. The word “friend” has become a verb, as in “she friended me on Facebook”. The term “check-in” no longer applies just to hotels and airports; these days it’s just as commonly used when someone reports where they are via a social network. Technology has also changed the way we write. Mobile phones have been responsible for a lot of the change, as users have moved towards texting as an everyday form of communication. For a start, WRITING IN UPPER CASE MEANS YOU’RE SHOUTING, while lower case writing is now the accepted form. Meanwhile, text language is full of abbreviations, missing vowels and acronyms. For example, the abbreviations LOL, OMG and gr8 are all widely used today but hadn’t been invented a few years ago. One of the drivers in this is that screen sizes and character limits are low, meaning that users need to abbreviate to fit their messages in. My Knowledge: ‘Emojis’ which are small digital images and ‘emoticons’ which are representation of a facial expression such as a smile or frown, formed by various combinations of keyboard characters are also...

Words: 324 - Pages: 2

English Language

...This is a sample text. For the purposes of according an international filing date, the requirement that the international application be in a prescribed language is met, in most receiving Offices, if the description and claims (but not necessarily the other elements of the international application) are in a language accepted by the receiving Office under Rule 12.1(a) or (c) (see Rule 20.4(c) and paragraph 54). If any of the other elements of the international application are not in a language accepted by the receiving Office, they may be corrected later without affecting the international filing date (see paragraphs 240 and 241). Background Art This is a sample text. Second translation will need to be furnished by the applicant in respect of any international application which is filed in a language which is not a language accepted by the International Searching Authority which is to carry out the international search and/or a language of publication; see paragraphs 229 to 236). Summary of Invention This is a sample text. In certain Offices, however, Rule 20.4(c) is incompatible with the applicable national law. For as long as that incompatibility continues, that Rule will not apply for those Offices; all elements of an international application filed with those Offices as receiving Office must therefore comply with the language requirements of Rule 12.1 before an international filing date can be accorded (see Annex C for details). Technical Problem This is a sample text.......

Words: 2552 - Pages: 11

In the English Language

...Jeanne Kelly Guieb Kenneth De Torres Use of the Dictionary A dictionary is a very important tool for anyone who is learning a new language. With a good dictionary you can do the following: * look up the meaning of an English word you see or hear * find the English translation of a word in your language * check the spelling of a word * check the plural of a noun or past tense of a verb * find out other grammatical information about a word * find the synonym or antonym of a word * look up the collocations of a word * check the part of speech of a word * find out how to say a word * find out about the register of a word * find examples of the use of a word in natural language Kinds of Dictionary Descriptive Dictionaries The truth of the matter is that today virtually all English language dictionaries are descriptive. The editors will usually say that they are simply recording the language and how its words are used and spelled. True, there may be some guidance. For example, most Merriam-Webster dictionaries will note if certain words are deemed nonstandard or offensive by most users; however, the words are still included. Of modern dictionaries, only the Funk and Wagnall's contain a certain amount of prescriptive advice. All the major dictionary publishers - Merriam-Webster, Times-Mirror, World Book, and Funk and Wagnall's - will tell you that they are primarily descriptive. Historically, Dictionaries were Prescriptive This......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Chemistry Has a Language

...Language of Chemistry To What degree might each area of knowledge be seen as having its own language? Its own culture? How can we tell the difference between a foreign language and a variation of our native language? 1) How chemistry has its own language a) Chemistry: 2H2 + O2 2H2O b) English: Two molecules of hydrogen react with one molecule of oxygen to form two molecules of water. This represents how chemistry has its own language because it uses different grammar rules and even different characters when it is written. a) (this could be considered an abbreviation instead of its own language because both the equation and the sentence have the exact same meaning. This still doesn’t mean that it is a language because it can directly translate into English which contradicts the Worf theory of language.) b) The following two equations are examples of complicated chemical equations. It would take a large amount of time and space to translate either of these two into English. 1) Chemistry also has its own rules (grammar) c) Both hydrogen and oxygen are “special” elements that, when written by themselves, must be bonded by another atom of the same element. This is represented by the small 2 written immediately after each element. d) The equation must always be balanced. This means that the same number of atoms on one side of the equation must match the number on the other side. This is represented by a large number......

Words: 559 - Pages: 3