Hrm Reliability and Validity

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ajmarimirza1990
Words 271
Pages 2
Validity is a measure of the effectiveness of a given approach. A selection process is valid if it helps you increase the chances of hiring the right person for the job. It is possible to evaluate hiring decisions in terms of such valued outcomes as high picking speed, low absenteeism, or a good safety record. A selection process is not valid on its own, but rather, relative to a specific purpose. For example, a test that effectively predicts the work quality of strawberry pickers may be useless in the selection of a capable crew foreman.
A critical component of validity is reliability. Validity embodies not only what positive outcomes a selection approach may predict, but also how consistently(i.e., reliably) it does so. In this chapter we will (1) review ways of improving the consistency or reliability of the selection process; (2) discuss two methods for measuring validity; and (3) present two cases that illustrate these methods. First, however, let’s consider a legal issue that is closely connected to validity: employment discrimination.

Avoiding Discrimination Charges
Avoiding content errors
Reducing rater inconsistency
Validity refers to the quality of a measure that exists when the measure assesses a construct. In the selection context, validity refers to the appropriateness, meaningfulness, and usefulness of the inferences made about applicants during the selection process. It is concerned with the issue of whether applicants will actually perform the job as well as expected based on the inferences made during the selection process. The closer the applicants' actual job performances match their expected performances, the greater the validity of the selection…...

Similar Documents

Validity, Credibility & Reliability

...Validity, Credibility & Reliability Alicia Struck XBCOM/275 April 17, 2014 Daniel Anderson Validity, Credibility & Reliability Validity, credibility and reliability are key to any kind of data or information being used. Claims and their sources both need to be credible. Where the data came from needs to be taken into account. Do they have a vested interest in the outcome or the understanding to interpret said information? Reliability Having information be reliable means the data is dependable, accurate and honest. An example could be finding reliable websites. It is possible for anyone to make a website. There are certain things to look for when making the decision if it is reliable. A person could check the extension such as .gov (government), .edu (educational) or .mil (military). These are most likely reliable since they have to be applied for and their use is controlled (Sanger). Credibility When something is credible it must be believed or trustworthy. Credible loans are a big issue these days. When someone close to me received a loan, a few years ago, she was fooled. I say this because she ended up paying the wrong company back almost four thousand dollars. Apparently the company was posing as the original company she borrowed from. She was gullible and ended up calling Homeland Security because of the situation (Credibility, 2007). Validity. To be based on truth ot having a foundation is when you find information valid. An example could be in......

Words: 384 - Pages: 2

Validity, Credibility, and Reliability Paper

...biased in a way that persuades the reader to believe the information being presented and form an opinion that shows favor to the reader or organization. Some drug companies tell you about all the benefits of their medication but not the side effects of the drug I think that why drug companies have a lot of people are suing drug companies. anyone can write anything on a website doesn’t mean it’s true for example Wikipedia I thought it was a reliable source for information but about a year ago some ask why I use the source I my response was doesn’t everybody she said that anyone can add information to the website true or untrue so that’s why I don’t use Wikipedia anymore. Some reasons you might consider data or info to lack validity, credibility, or reliability include the nature of source, poor research, or clear bias. If the source is not credible, it throws into question how much to believe it. If the research is poor, or if poor statistical methods are used, the data is flawed. Otherwise, evident bias can mean the info is tainted....

Words: 394 - Pages: 2

Types of Reliability and Validity

...Reliability In the field of Human Services, especially in the creation of programs, projects and approach strategies, it is important to measure the reliability of approaches and results. The following approaches are more often than not used to test reliability and are therefore the embodiment 'types' of how reliable an approach or strategy tested with them is: 1. Test-retest reliability - The test-retest method estimates the reliability of the test and the results gathered from it by administering the test to the same group of people at least twice over a set period. The results are then correlated and with a high reliability mark, the tests are seen as reliable. 2. Alternate Forms - Two groups are given the test and their scores are correlated. They do not necessarily have to come from the same population (i.e. test in India & test in Bangladesh) as long as there is a certain relationship. The score correlation becomes the reliability guide. 3. Split Half reliability - In terms of tests, half the items relate to the other half and it is the correlation between them in the test results that matter (i.e. half of the test or interview is about health and welfare issues and the other is about the economic state of the interviewee). 4. Inter-rater Reliability - As in contests where there are multiple judges, tests, contests, experiments and research are tested and marked by a set of qualified people. Their average assessment is then seen as......

Words: 801 - Pages: 4

Validity and Reliability

...VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY For the statistical consultant working with social science researchers the estimation of reliability and validity is a task frequently encountered. Measurement issues differ in the social sciences in that they are related to the quantification of abstract, intangible and unobservable constructs. In many instances, then, the meaning of quantities is only inferred. Let us begin by a general description of the paradigm that we are dealing with. Most concepts in the behavioral sciences have meaning within the context of the theory that they are a part of. Each concept, thus, has an operational definition which is governed by the overarching theory. If a concept is involved in the testing of hypothesis to support the theory it has to be measured. So the first decision that the research is faced with is “how shall the concept be measured?” That is the type of measure. At a very broad level the type of measure can be observational, self-report, interview, etc. These types ultimately take shape of a more specific form like observation of ongoing activity, observing video-taped events, self-report measures like questionnaires that can be open-ended or close-ended, Likert-type scales, interviews that are structured, semi-structured or unstructured and open-ended or close-ended. Needless to say, each type of measure has specific types of issues that need to be addressed to make the measurement meaningful, accurate, and efficient. ......

Words: 1512 - Pages: 7

Validity Reliability

...Instruments Contents Types of Preestablished Measures Archival Data vii Scales of Measurement 72 Summarizing Data Using Descriptive Statistics Frequency Distributions What is a Typical or Average Score? Measures of Central Tendency Measures of Variability Types of Scores Used to Compare Performance on Educational Measures Use of Correlational Coefficients in Evaluating Measures 74 Evaluating the Quality of Educational Measures: Reliability and Validity Reliability Validity Finding Preestablished Measures Criteria for Selecting Preestablished Instruments Reliability and Validity in Archival Data 87 Chapter Summary 100 Key Concepts 102 103 Discussion Questions or Activities Suggested Readings 104 5 Self-Developed Measures and Qualitative Measurement Chapter Objectives 105 Self-Developed Instruments 106 Developing Scales for Use in Surveys Likert Scales Semantic Differential Scales Establishing Reliability and Validity for Surveys 105 106 Developing Observational Checklists 113 116 Reliability and Validity for Observational Checklists Developing Measurement Procedures and Tools for Qualitative Studies Use of Observations Observational Protocols Use of Interviews Interview Protocols Use of Documents and Artifacts Developing Measurement Tools for Action Research 127 viii Checklists and Rating Scales Grading Rubrics Journals Records and Documents Maps, Photographs, and Artifacts Evaluating the Quality of Measures Used in......

Words: 153398 - Pages: 614

Reliability and Validity in Personality Testing

...Reliability and Validity in Personality Testing 02-16-2015 Introduction Psychological tests are often used in the selection of projective personnel (Anastasia & Urbina, 1997). The idea is that by using the scientific approach to personality and emotional intelligence testing in hiring, the employers will be able to increase the number of successful employees (Beaz lll, 2013). “Personality refers to an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits”, which in relationship to a person’s projected Emotional Intelligence (EI) may lead to matching the right person to the right job. Job proficiency tests are used to select candidates for employment and are the number one tool used to match the right person to the right position (, 2015). However, there are quite a few complaints about the fairness of this process and due to many court cases challenging the validity of these tests, many organizations have chosen to drop the assessment. A plaintiff must establish adverse impact upon a protected group by the employment practice used, in order to force an employer to show content validity in terms of examined traits to be consistent with job relatedness. In a court case against Target, the court found that the questions relating to personality traits in terms of religion and sexual orientation did not have any bearing on the desired emotional stability of the projective employee who had applied for the security officer’s job (Schaffer &......

Words: 1685 - Pages: 7

Psych 625 Week 1 Individual Assignment – Reliability and Validity Matrix

...PSYCH 625 Week 1 Individual Assignment – Reliability and Validity Matrix To Download This Tutorial Visit below Link (Product Type) : Instant Downloadable We invite you to browse through our store and shop with confidence. We invite you to create an account with us if you like, or shop as a guest. Either way, your shopping cart will be active until you leave the store. All Tutorials will be E-mailed immediately after the Payment, Please Check your inbox or Spam Folder and can also be downloaded by clicking on Tutorial Bucket. For Any Other Inquiry Feel Free to Contact us: For More Tutorials Visit: ( ) (Product Description) PSYCH 625 Week 1 Individual Assignment – Reliability and Validity Matrix To Download This Tutorial Visit below Link (Product Type) : Instant Downloadable We invite you to browse through our store and shop with confidence. We invite you to create an account with us if you like, or shop as a guest. Either way, your shopping cart will be active until you leave the store. All Tutorials will be E-mailed immediately after the Payment, Please Check your inbox or Spam Folder and can also be downloaded by clicking on Tutorial......

Words: 883 - Pages: 4

Reliability and Validity

...University of Phoenix Material Validity and Reliability Matrix For each of the tests of reliability and validity listed on the matrix, prepare a 50-100-word description of test’s application and under what conditions these types of reliability would be used as well as when it would be inappropriate. Then prepare a 50-100-word description of each test’s strengths and a 50-100-word description of each test’s weaknesses. |TEST of |Application and APPROPRIATENESS |Strengths |Weaknesses | |Reliability | | | | |Internal |“When you want to know if the item on a test assess one, and only one |The imbalance circulation of element correlation or |By using the degree of correlated items to measure,| |Consistency |dimension” (Salkind,N, pg.108). This test would be "used when you want|extreme values of correlations do not alter the |consistency internally is not a correct choice when| | |to know whether the items on a test are consistent with one another” |general factor. The internal arrangement of |the outcome of the test is not one-dimensional. | | |(Salkind,N. 2011 pg110). It would be appropriate to use......

Words: 1837 - Pages: 8

Validity and Reliability

...Validity and Reliability instruments are tools researchers use to collect data. They are also known as “tests.” In reference to instruments, validity is about the instrument itself, that is, “Is the test measuring what it is supposed to measure?” Reliability means, “Are the results of the test consistent over time?” Reliability and validity are often used in testing conditions. In order to compare students’ learning or the quality of teaching programs, tests are categorized by their validity (does the instrument measure what it claims to be measuring) as well as by their reliability (the same results yesterday, today and tomorrow). Reliability refers to the uniformity or stability of the test scores and validity refers to the precision of the assumptions or interpretations made from the resulting test scores. Both of these characteristics are important. However, in order to have validity you must begin with reliability. Reliability is possible without validity. In other words, you can make inferences from data which is solid (reliable), but just because the data is solid it does not mean that the inferences will be valid. Just because students in the same situation score reasonably the same no matter the conditions, does not mean that the tests are testing their learning capacities. I would be looking for the name of the test which gave the standardized data, when it was normed and if there is a more recent version of the test. It is necessary to know something about the......

Words: 389 - Pages: 2

Reliability and Validity Paper

...are reliable and valid. The following paragraphs will explore reliability, and validity. This paper will also explore data collection methods and data collection instruments that are used in human services research, and managerial research. Types of Reliability Reliability is defined as “the quality or state of being reliable; specifically: the extent to which an experiment, test, or measuring procedure yields the same result on repeated trials” ("Reliability," 2011). There are five types of reliability: alternate-form, internal-consistency, item-to-item, judge-to-judge, and test-retest reliability. Alternate-form reliability is the degree of relatedness of different forms of the same test (Rosnow & Rosenthal, 2008). Internal-consistency reliability is how reliable the test is as a whole or how judges score (Rosnow & Rosenthal, 2008). Item-to-item reliability and judge-to-judge reliability are almost the same. Item-to-item reliability is the reliability of any single item on average and judge-to-judge is the reliability of any singe judge on average (Rosnow & Rosenthal, 2008). Finally test-retest reliability is the degree of stability of a measuring instrument or test (Rosnow & Rosenthal, 2008). All types of reliability are used in human services research. It is very important the researcher makes sure that the tests that he or she is using are reliable. For example the alternate-form reliability, if the researcher gave his or her participants a test that......

Words: 775 - Pages: 4

Validity and Reliability

...Validity and Reliability The principles of validity and reliability are fundamental cornerstones of the scientific method. Together, they are at the core of what is accepted as scientific proof, by scientist and philosopher alike. By following a few basic principles, any experimental design will stand up to rigorous questioning and skepticism. \ What is Reliability? The idea behind reliability is that any significant results must be more than a one-off finding and be inherently repeatable. Other researchers must be able to perform exactly the same experiment, under the same conditions and generate the same results. This will reinforce the findings and ensure that the wider scientific community will accept the hypothesis. Without this replication of statistically significant results, the experiment andresearch have not fulfilled all of the requirements of testability. This prerequisite is essential to a hypothesis establishing itself as an accepted scientific truth. For example, if you are performing a time critical experiment, you will be using some type of stopwatch. Generally, it is reasonable to assume that the instruments are reliable and will keep true and accurate time. However, diligent scientists take measurements many times, to minimize the chances of malfunction and maintain validity and reliability. At the other extreme, any experiment that uses human judgment is always going to come under question. For example, if observers rate certain......

Words: 548 - Pages: 3

Explain the Issues of Reliability and Validity in the Classification and Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

...Explain the issues of reliability and validity in the classification and diagnosis of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a chronic mental health condition in which causes a range of psychological symptoms. There are two types of symptoms a person with schizophrenia may experience; positive symptoms and negative symptoms. One example of a positive symptom might be a delusion. A delusion is when a sufferer has an extreme sense that unreal event or belief is real, due to distortions of reasoning. In addition to this the sufferer may also have hallucinations, which are also an example of a positive symptom. A hallucination is often described as a visual or auditory distortion, for example “hearing voices”. Alogia is an example of a negative symptom. Alogia is the inability of a sufferer to speak fluently. A final example of a negative symptom is social withdrawal. If a person has social withdrawal they will try to avoid any interactions with other people. Schizophrenia can be diagnosed by classification, in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM). The DSM assumes that all mental disorders are distinct from each other, and that patients can be categorised with a disorder based on their having particular symptoms. However, diagnosing abnormality is not as straightforward as this approach suggests. For example the DSM categorises Schizophrenia into five different types; disorganised, catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual. Because of this...

Words: 814 - Pages: 4

Reliability and Validity

...Reliability and Validity Walter Boothe BSHS/382 April 23, 2012 Staci Lowe Reliability and Validity In human services, research and testing is conducted in order to provide the most effective program possible. Testing methods should have both reliability and validity. They should be both consistent and specific. This paper will discuss two types of reliability and two types of validity and provide examples of how each can be applied to human services research. Additionally, this paper will discuss methods of gathering data in human services, and why it is vital that these methods have reliability and validity. Reliability Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. A test is considered reliable if we get the same result repeatedly (Cherry, 2010).Regardless of the reason for testing administering a test , in order for it to be reliable , the results should be approximately the same each time it is administered. Unfortunately, it is impossible to calculate reliability exactly, but it can be estimated in a number of different ways (Cherry, 2010). Two specific types of reliability are inter –rater reliability and internal consistency reliability. Inter –rater reliability is assessed by having two or more independent judges score the test (Cherry, 2010). The scores are compared to determine the consistency of the rater’s estimates. One way to test inter-rater reliability is to have each rater assign each test item a score (Cherry, 2010). Next, test......

Words: 1046 - Pages: 5

Reliability and Validity

...Reliability and Validity Carmen Kbeir BSHS/382 March 26, 2012 Edessa Jobli Reliability and Validity Researchers employ a wide range of data collection methods to obtain information. Some of these methods are quantitative, such as experiments. Others are qualitative, like field studies. Within each of these methods are specific procedures that lead the researcher to various outcomes. The tools, or instruments, used to measure observations or statistics throughout the process are very important. To understand how well the instruments work and the extent to which the outcomes will produce similar results in the future, researchers examine different types of validity and reliability. Reliability is the extent to which an instrument produces consistent results and the probability that others can achieve the same results when reproducing the study. There are several types of reliability, including alternate-form reliability, internal-consistency reliability, item-to-item or judge-to-judge reliability, and test-retest reliability (Rosnow & Rosenthal, 2008). Internal-consistency reliability measures the amount of correlation between items on a test (Darity, 2008). The average correlation between items is indicated by item-to-item reliability. These types of reliability let the researcher know how well the items on a test go together (Rosnow & Rosenthal, 2008). A questionnaire or survey is not of much use if the questions on them are......

Words: 1099 - Pages: 5

Bodpod Reliability and Validity: Especially in Male and Female Athletes.

...BodPod Reliability and Validity: Especially in Male and Female Athletes. A Literature Review Research in Exercise Science BODPOD INFORMATION AND BACKGROUND The BODPOD is a fairly new form of body fat estimation introduced to the health and fitness world. BODPOD is a shortened term for the formally named air-displacement plethysmography. This tool for body composition estimation is called a two-compartment model, similar to hydrostatic weighing. Hydrostatic weighing is another two-compartment model that was around and used before the BODPOD’s existence. (Fields, Hunter & Goran , 2000) Also called under water weighing, hydrostatic weighing remains the gold standard for accurate measurements of body fat percentages. This can be an intimidating form of measurement because subjects are forced to be submerged underwater and exhale as much air as possible. Some Studies show that the hydrostatic method is still a more trusted means of estimation of body fat percentages and body density, while others show that their results are often times very similar. (Fields, Wilson, Gladden, Hunter, Pascoe & Goran, 2001) It is called two compartment because is measures two things, Body fat percentages (BF%) and body density (Bd), as opposed to a four compartment model which takes fat, water, minerals, and protein into account. (Sardinha, Silva & Teixeira, 2003) The BODPOD is a much cheaper and...

Words: 2045 - Pages: 9