Impact of Mac Layer on the Performance of Odmrp, Fisheye, Aodv and Dsr, Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By AVRGMRIT
Words 2917
Pages 12
Impact of MAC Layer on the Performance of ODMRP, Fisheye, AODV and DSR, Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

A. Sravani, G. Srinu, and A.Venkataramana Abstract— Mobile Ad hoc Network is an emerging area. Its standards are defined by IETF. MANET is a self generated, self organized and self handled network consisting of collection of independent nodes. MANETs Presents several desirable properties like dynamic topology, Easy of deployment and robustness, which are qualify them as an attractive topic for the research community. Providing QoS routing is a major issue in MANETs. Media Access Control layer plays crucial role in Ad hoc networks. Several routing protocols have already been proposed for MANETs. This paper describes the impact of MAC layer protocols like 802.11 and CSMA on the various routing protocols like AODV, DSR, ODMRP and Fisheye. Numbers of simulation scenarios were carried out by using Glomosim-2.03. The QoS parameters used are Throughput, Delay and PDR. Simulation results found that AODV performs better in 802.11 and CSMA, DSR and ODMRP performs better in only under 802.11.

Keywords— MANET, AODV, DSR, FSR, GloMoSim, ODMRP
Wireless communication networks are basically two types as shown in Fig.1. One is infrastructure based and other one is infrastructure less. Infrastructure based is cellular communications whereas infrastructure less is ad hoc networks.

Fig.1 Classification of wireless communication networks

A. Cellular Networks
A Cellular Network is a wireless network distributed over areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed location known as a cell site or base station. The presence of base stations simplifies routing and resource management in a cellular network as the routing decisions are made in a centralized manner with more information about the destination node. The base station…...

Similar Documents

Routing Approaches of Delay Tolerant Networks

...Volume 1 – No. 17 Routing Approaches in Delay Tolerant Networks: A Survey R. J. D'Souza National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, India Johny Jose National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, India ABSTRACT Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) have evolved from Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET). It is a network, where contemporaneous connectivity among all nodes doesn’t exist. This leads to the problem of how to route a packet from one node to another, in such a network. This problem becomes more complex, when the node mobility also is considered. The researchers have attempted to address this issue for over a decade. They have found that communication is possible in such a challenged network. The design of routing protocol for such networks is an important issue. This work surveys the literature and classifies the various routing approaches. discontinuity in the network. There are also methods that have employed additional mobile nodes, to provide better message delivery. Researchers are even exploring how the social interaction of humans can be utilized for routing in a DTN. This survey has made an extensive study of the various routing strategies taken by the researchers in the past few years. We have classified them based on the type of knowledge used for routing. 2. FLOODING BASED APPROACHES Knowledge about the network helps in deciding the best next hop. It can happen that the network has absolutely no knowledge about the network. In such......

Words: 6818 - Pages: 28

Computer Networks

...high-performance microkernel-based distributed operating system. The MINIX and Amoeba systems are now available for free via the Internet. His Ph.D. students have gone on to greater glory after getting their degrees. He is very proud of them. In this respect he resembles a mother hen. Prof. Tanenbaum is a Fellow of the ACM, a Fellow of the the IEEE, and a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is also winner of the 1994 ACM Karl V. Karlstrom Outstanding Educator Award, winner of the 1997 ACM/SIGCSE Award for Outstanding Contributions to Computer Science Education, and winner of the 2002 Texty award for excellence in textbooks. He is also listed in Who's Who in the World. His home page on the World Wide Web can be found at URL . Preface This book is now in its fourth edition. Each edition has corresponded to a different phase in the way computer networks were used. When the first edition appeared in 1980, networks were an academic curiosity. When the second edition appeared in 1988, networks were used by universities and large businesses. When the third edition appeared in 1996, computer networks, especially the Internet, had become a daily reality for millions of people. The new item in the fourth edition is the rapid growth of wireless networking in many forms. The networking picture has changed radically since the third edition. In the mid-1990s, numerous kinds of LANs and WANs existed, along with multiple protocol......

Words: 292171 - Pages: 1169

Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

...Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: application on Fire Detection Abstract: this paper is about fire detection in building using a modified APTEEN routing protocol. Here we design a system called iFireControl which is a smart detection system for buildings, which is more water efficient than many current systems, while keeping its robustness. introduction A Wireless Sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. The more modern networks are bi-directional, also enabling control of sensors activity. The development of wireless sensor networks was motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance; nowadays such networks are used in many industrial and consumer applications, such as industrial process monitoring and control, machine health monitoring, Agriculture, Area Monitoring, Smart Home Monitoring, Seismic Monitoring etc. Wireless Sensor Networks provide a bridge between the real physical and virtual worlds; allow the ability to observe the previously unobservable at a fine resolution over large spatio-temporal scales. The WSN is built of “nodes” from a few to several hundreds or even thousands, where each node is connected to one (or sometimes several) sensors. Each such sensor network node has typically several parts: a...

Words: 4845 - Pages: 20

He Darknet Is Not a Separate Physical Network but an Application and Protocol Layer Riding on Existing

... We investigate the darknet – a collection of networks and technologies used to share digital content. The darknet is not a separate physical network but an application and protocol layer riding on existing networks. Examples of darknets are peer-to-peer file sharing, CD and DVD copying, and key or password sharing on email and newsgroups. The last few years have seen vast increases in the darknet’s aggregate bandwidth, reliability, usability, size of shared library, and availability of search engines. In this paper we categorize and analyze existing and future darknets, from both the technical and legal perspectives. We speculate that there will be short-term impediments to the effectiveness of the darknet as a distribution mechanism, but ultimately the darknet-genie will not be put back into the bottle. In view of this hypothesis, we examine the relevance of content protection and content distribution architectures. 1 Introduction People have always copied things. In the past, most items of value were physical objects. Patent law and economies of scale meant that small scale copying of physical objects was usually uneconomic, and large-scale copying (if it infringed) was stoppable using policemen and courts. Today, things of value are increasingly less tangible: often they are just bits and bytes or can be accurately represented as bits and bytes. The widespread deployment of packet-switched networks and the huge advances in computers and......

Words: 8216 - Pages: 33

Simulations in Wireless Sensor and Ad Hoc Networks: Matching and Advancing Models, Metrics, and Solutions

...TOPICS IN AD HOC AND SENSOR NETWORKS Simulations in Wireless Sensor and Ad Hoc Networks: Matching and Advancing Models, Metrics, and Solutions Ivan Stojmenovic, University of Birmingham and University of Ottawa ABSTRACT The objective of this article is to give advice for carrying out a proper and effective simulation activity for protocol design. It challenges some of the existing criticisms of simulation practices that emphasized validation aspects. This article advocates the use of simple models, matching assumptions and metrics in the problem statement and simulation to provide a basic “proof of concept,” and comparison with truly competing solutions, which is possible only after a thorough and critical literature review. Then the complexity of the models can be increased (one parameter at a time), revising the algorithms themselves by adapting them to new assumptions, metrics, and the corresponding simulation environment. Selected independent variables should explain performance under a wide range of scenarios. unclear which protocol will perform well under a wide range of scenarios. It is our view that each article should be judged on its overall contribution, including the assumptions used, theory developed, new algorithms introduced, protocol details, simulation results, and relevance to an ultimate goal of staying on a path toward creating applications. We begin with a literature review of existing criticism for simulation practices, and then discuss what......

Words: 4845 - Pages: 20

Routing Protocol

...EIGRP and OSPF Comparison For Client Sponsor Prepared By Scott Hogg Project Number 02 Date March 14, 2002 |Distribution List | |Name |Title/Duties |Company | |John Vogt-Nilsen |Manager – Network Operations | | |Sammy Hutton |Principal Systems Analyst | | |Scott Hogg |Principal Consultant |Lucent | |Phil Colon |Managing Consultant |Lucent | |Revision History | |Version |Date |Author |Comments | |1.0 |03/14/2002 |Scott Hogg |Initial Draft | | | | | ......

Words: 8531 - Pages: 35

Implementation and Evaluation of Wireless Mesh Networks on Manet Routing Protocols

...Wireless Mesh Networks on MANET Routing Protocols Shashi Bhushan1,Anil Saroliya2 ,Vijander Singh3 Research Scholar, Computer Science, Amity University, Jaipur, India 1 Assistant Professor, Computer Science, Amity University, Jaipur, India 2 Senior Lecturer, Computer Science, Amity University, Jaipur, India 3 Abstract—Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is a kind of network which is made up of Mesh router and Mesh clients where Mesh router having lesser mobility and form the heart of WMNs. In this paper, Wireless Mesh Network over MANET implemented using routing protocols such as AODV, DSR. In this work NS-2.34 simulator is used for simulations. Various measurements and calculations were figure out in this work like throughput, Average end-end delay, PDR, NRL and Routing packets in Random way point mobility model. WMN have features such as self configuration, self healing and low cost of equipment. This work specifically aims to study the performance of routing protocols in a wireless mesh network, where static mesh routers and mobile clients participate together to implement networks functionality such as routing and packet forwarding in different mobility scenarios Keywords- Ad hoc Network, Routing Protocols, Wireless Mesh Network, Performance, Throughput, PDR, NRL and Routing packets in Random way point mobility model, Simulation on Network simulator NS-2, AODV,DSR , Routing Overhead. I. INTRODUCTION A Mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) is an autonomous system of wireless mobile......

Words: 4335 - Pages: 18

A Delay-Based Optimum Routing Protocol Scheme for Collision Avoidance Applications in Vanets

...Optimum Routing Protocol Scheme for Collision Avoidance Applications in VANETs Gayathri Narayanan1,a, Neethu Sathianadhan2,b and Sruthi Sanjiv Gangadharan3,c 1,2,3 Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Amrita School of Engineering, Amritapuri Campus Kollam – Kerala, India,, Keywords: Broadcast, Multi-hop, VANETs, Delay, Routing Protocols, AODV, Cluster-based routing, OSPF. Abstract — Broadcast transmissions are currently finding extensive applications in vehicular ad-hoc networks, albeit primarily in the research phase. Given the importance of knowing the updated network details of each node in the network, and also considering the fact that the delay in transmission of messages is a crucial factor in collision avoidance, it is imperative to implement a broadcast network which will ensure minimum delay in transmission of messages between the nodes. In this paper, we primarily implement a multi-hop broadcast vehicular network for collision avoidance. We consider the mobility and traffic density of vehicles and simulate the end-to-end delay in message transmission for a sparse and dense network scenario. In order to ensure high reliability and get the optimum delay, we extend the scenario to include three different routing protocols – AODV, Cluster-based routing and OSPF – and perform a comparison based on the end-to-end transmission delay to determine the optimum......

Words: 4169 - Pages: 17

Mobile Ad Hoc Network Comlete Seminar Report File

...screen • Refreshing of screen is not required • Selective or part erasing of screen is not possible • It has poor contrast Performance is inferior to the refresh CRT. 19.What do you mean by emissive and non-emissive displays? The emissive display converts electrical energy into light energy. The plasma panels, thin film electro-luminescent displays are the examples. The Non-emissive are optical effects to convert the sunlight or light from any other source to graphic form. Liquid crystal display is an example. 20.List out the merits and demerits of Plasma panel display? Merits • Refreshing is not required • Produce a very steady image free of Flicker • Less bulky than a CRT. Demerits • Poor resolution of up to 60 d.p.i • It requires complex addressing and wiring • It is costlier than CRT. 21.What is persistence? The time it takes the emitted light from the screen to decay one tenth of its original intensity is called as persistence. 22.What is Aspect ratio? The ratio of vertical points to the horizontal points necessary to produce length of lines in both directions of the screen is called the Aspect ratio. Usually the aspect ratio is ¾. 23.What is the difference between impact and non-impact printers? Impact printer press formed character faces against an inked ribbon on to the paper. A line printer and dot-matrix printer are examples. Non-impact printer and plotters use Laser techniques, inkjet sprays, Xerographic process, electrostatic methods and......

Words: 8037 - Pages: 33

A Distributed Joint Channel-Assignment, Scheduling and Routing Algorithm for Multi-Channel Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

...Scheduling and Routing Algorithm for Multi-Channel Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Xiaojun Lin and Shahzada Rasool School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907, U.S.A. {linx,srasool} Abstract— The capacity of ad hoc wireless networks can be substantially increased by equipping each network node with multiple radio interfaces that can operate on multiple non-overlapping channels. However, new scheduling, channelassignment, and routing algorithms are required to fully utilize the increased bandwidth in multi-channel multi-radio ad hoc networks. In this paper, we develop a fully distributed algorithm that jointly solves the channel-assignment, scheduling and routing problem. Our algorithm is an online algorithm, i.e., it does not require prior information on the offered load to the network, and can adapt automatically to the changes in the network topology and offered load. We show that our algorithm is provably efficient. That is, even compared with the optimal centralized and offline algorithm, our proposed distributed algorithm can achieve a provable fraction of the maximum system capacity. Further, the achievable fraction that we can guarantee is larger than that of some other comparable algorithms in the literature. I. I NTRODUCTION Multi-channel multi-radio ad hoc wireless networks have recently received a substantial amount of interest, especially under the context of wireless mesh networks......

Words: 8961 - Pages: 36

Denial of Service Attacks in Network Security

...Denial of service attacks in Network security introduction and short history of DoS attacks: Denial of service attacks are one of the major threat to the modern computer networks.It has been said that first DDoS attack was launched in 1999 against the IRC server of university of minnesota which affected 227 systems and server was down for several days.Another DoS attack was documented in the week of feb 7 2000.A 15 year old canadian hacker named “mafiaboy” performed a series of DoS attack against some sites like ebay and amazon.Companies suffered from 1.7 billion of damage.After that it became the best way of hacking among cybercriminals. People used to perform these attacks for profits.Hackers will follow the procedures like mafiaboy and ask for the money.In 2005 ,it became more easy to implement those attacks ,a boy of 18-yr old named Farid Essabar developed a worm called MyTob which used to open a backdoor in Ms windows hosts and connect to the remote IRC server.The computer then used to wait for the commands from the servers.Farid was arrested for distributing the worm.This was surely not the last case.DDoS attacks were used to attack and money extortion. As name suggests Denial of Service aka DoS, it’s main objective is to make the system to deny the legitimate service requests. Basically DoS attacks are performed by exhausting the resources of the computer like processing power,network bandwidth,TCP connection and service buffers,CPU cycles and so on.Hackers......

Words: 2218 - Pages: 9

Dynamic Source Routing

...Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) DSR was first introduced and described by David B. Johnson, David A. Maltz and Josh Broch in 1994. The protocol is specifically designed for use in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks. The protocol does not require any existing network infrastructure or administration and is completely self-organizing and self-configuring. The protocol basically consists of the two mechanisms: Route Discovery and Route Maintenance, where the Route Discovery mechanism handles establishment of routes and the Route Maintenance mechanism keeps route information updated. Assumptions Some assumptions concerning the behavior of the nodes that participate in the ad hoc network are made. The most important assumptions are the following: A1. All nodes that participate in the network are willing to participate fully in the protocols of the network. A2. The diameter of an ad hoc network is the minimum number of hops necessary for a packet to reach from any node located at one extreme edge of the ad hoc network to another node located at the opposite extreme. We assume that this diameter will often be small (e.g., perhaps 5 or 10 hops), but it may often be greater than 1. A3. Nodes can detect the error through a standard link-layer checksum or Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC), and discard corrupted packages . A4. The speed at which nodes move is moderate with respect to packet transmission latency and wireless transmission range of the particular underlying network......

Words: 1841 - Pages: 8

Simulation Study on Service Based Adaptive Qos Framework for Vehicular Adhoc Network- Redem

...Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET) is an outgrowth of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET), in which the mobile vehicles on road and the stationary roadside units (RSU) constitutes the nodes and communicate with each other on the fly (Fig. 1); Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Roadside Unit (V2R). VANET can be categorised under hybrid architecture that consists of both infrastructure and infrastructure less features. VANET nodes are capable of self organising and managing the information in a distributed fashion with or without any centralised authority. Road Side Units (RSU) supported by DSRC standard [2] acts as gateways or fixed access points to vehicles in mobility and provides interim connectivity to vehicles. One of the major advantages of VANETs over MANETs is the unlimited battery power generated on the fly. VANET plays a major role in defining safety measures by streaming communication between vehicles, infotainment and telematics. In any generic network phenomena the concept of routing and its characteristics are highly linked with Quality of Service (QoS). The United Nations Consultative Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy (CCITT) Recommendation E.800 has defined QoS as: “The collective effect of service performance which determines the degree of satisfaction of a user of the service”. The major concern of VANET routing is that whether the performance can satisfy the throughput and delay requirements of such media streaming applications. Unavailability...

Words: 1550 - Pages: 7

Network and Protocols

...networking media for use in areas that is difficult or too costly to wire. 2. What are the three areas defined for the IEEE 802.11 standard?      1. Physical Layer (PHY)           The method of transmitting the data, which may be either RF or infrared (although infrared is rarely used.)     2. Medium Access Control (MAC)           I. The reliability of the data service.           II. Access control to the shared wireless medium.           III. Protecting the privacy of the transmitted data.     3. MAC management protocols and services           I. Authentication, association, data delivery, and privacy. 3. What is an ad hoc network?      1. In this network, the wireless clients (stations) communicate directly with each other. This means the clients have recognized the other stations in the WLAN and have established a wireless data link.      2. The fundamental topology of the WLAN is the Basic Service Set (BSS). This is also called the independent Basic Service Set, or ad hoc network. 4. What is the purpose of an Extended Service Set?      1. By adding multiple access points to the network, the range of mobility of a wireless client in the LAN is extended.      2. Definition - The use of multiple access points to extend user mobility Hand-off. 5. What are the four physical layer technologies being used in 802.11 wireless networking?      1. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)      2. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum......

Words: 1687 - Pages: 7

Wireless Mesh Network

...WIRE LESS MESS NETWORK WITH HRPU ABSTRACT A Wireless mesh network is a mesh network created through the connection of wireless access points installed at each network user’s locale. Each user is also a provider, forwarding data at next node. The networking infrastructure is decentralized and simplified because each node need only transmit as far as the next node. Wireless mesh networking could allow people living in the remote areas and small businesses operating in rural neighborhoods to connect their networks together for affordable Internet connections. Here we discuss a hybrid routing algorithm for wireless mesh networks. In HRPU, the mesh portal periodically broadcasts a mesh update message, which allows all nodes to have a route towards the mesh portal stored semi permanently in their routing table. Whenever a node has data to be sent to backbone network, it sends the data without any route establishment delay using the route to the mesh portal. In HRPU the mesh portals and mesh points are intelligent which further improves the performance. INTRODUCTION The Beginning: Wireless Mesh Networking (WMN) was developed as a quick way to set-up wireless networks during military operations. Since then it has grown considerably in popularity based on its advantages in both metropolitan and rural applications. WMNs are being applied as Hot Zones, which cover a broad area, such as a downtown city district. By 2010, municipal Wi-Fi networks will cover over......

Words: 4177 - Pages: 17