Impact of Motivation on Employees Performance

In: Business and Management

Submitted By arikyi
Words 25213
Pages 101
CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction/Background of the Study
The performance of individuals, singly and collectively, in work situations is a primary concern for managers in organizations. The effective application of human resources to accomplish organizational objectives typically requires predictable performances of a given level (quantity and quality) from every organizational member.
Theorists of both cognitive and a cognitive orientations agree that managers should give considerable emphasis to tying organizational rewards to performance on the job Hamner, 1974; Porter & Lawler, 1968). The assumption (often implicit) in these attempts to encourage increased performance is that there is an additive relationship between externally mediated rewards and rewards which arise out of task performance itself. Therefore, if either one or both types of reward outcomes can be increased, total motivation or performance behaviors can be increased.

In the late 1940’s a psychology professor called Harry F. Harlow (Harlow, Harlow & Meyer 1950) conducted one of the first true intrinsic motivational experiments ever performed, using a simple puzzle where a rhesus monkey needed to perform 3 simple tasks in a specific row to complete it. A simple task for a human, but a much more complex task for a little monkey.
The experiment was performed on 12 primates over a 3-week period. Almost immediately the monkeys were able to solve the puzzle and they continued to solve it every time they were near it, without receiving any kind of rewards or recognition from doing so.
Nobody showed the rhesus monkeys how to solve the puzzle or taught them that they even could solve it, but they still did it. Harlow concluded that it must have been due to an internal biological motivator that gave the monkeys a satisfaction or enjoyment from solving the puzzle.
The experiment was repeated, but…...

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