Malaria Notes

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Submitted By lnlohiya
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Of the malaria prevention mechanisms, vector control has the capacity to decrease malaria transmission to almost negligible. Of the various vector control methods, Insecticide Treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying are the most widespread.
Insecticide Treated Nets * It is the leading strategy in high transmission regions. The insecticide in the nets repel or kill mosquitos that come in contact * However, these must be retreated every 6 months, which is a financial and logistical burden. * Long-Lasting Insecticide Nets are a solution as they directly infuse the insecticide into netting fabric to increase the life-span to 5 years.
Indoor Residual Spraying * In IRS, insecticides are sprayed onto residential walls in high transmission regions, with the insecticide performing a similar function as in ITNs. * DDT was successful in reducing mosquito populations after WW2. However, its environmental problems lead to its replacement by pyrethroids, organophosphates and carbamates
Insecticide Resistance * Insecticide Resistance in mosquitos is the major problem with these two methods * Need for new alternatives and resistance management as outlined in WHO’s Global plan for insecticide resistance management in malaria vectors (GPIRM)

Chemoprophylaxis * Refers to antimalarial drugs that suppress the blood stage of malaria to prevent it. * It is mainly for low immune non-residents exposed for short durations and not for high transmission countries due to high costs and drug resistance, especially to chloroquine.
Intermittent Preventative Therapy * For low immune residents like pregnant women and infants. * Here, doses of the anti-malarial drug sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) are given during either antenatal visits or vaccinations
Personal Protection * There are other methods too. However, they either have low…...

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