Micro Hydro Power

In: English and Literature

Submitted By nirajamr
Words 3176
Pages 13
MICRO-HYDRO POWER
Introduction
Water power can be harnessed in many ways; tidal flows can be utilised to produce power by building a barrage across an estuary and releasing water in a controlled manner through a turbine; large dams hold water which can be used to provide large quantities of electricity; wave power is also harnessed in various ways. It is a technology that has been utilised throughout the world, by a diverse range of societies and cultures, for many centuries. Water can be harnessed on a large or a small scale - Table 1, below outlines the categories used to define the power output form hydropower. Micro-hydro power is the small-scale harnessing of energy from falling water; for example, harnessing enough water from a local river to power a small factory or village. This fact sheet will concentrate mainly at micro-hydro power. Large- hydro Medium-hydro Small-hydro Mini-hydro Micro-hydro More than 100 MW and usually feeding into a large electricity grid 15 - 100 MW - usually feeding a grid 1 - 15 MW - usually feeding into a grid Above 100 kW, but below 1 MW; either stand alone schemes or more often feeding into the grid From 5kW up to 100 kW; usually provided power for a small community or rural industry in remote areas away from the grid.

Pico-hydro From a few hundred watts up to 5kW Table 1: Classification of hydropower by size. kW (kilowatt) - 1000 Watts; MW (megawatt) - 1 000 000 Watts or 1000 kW In the UK, water mills are known to have been in use 900 years ago. Their numbers grew steadily and by the 19th century, there were over 20,000 in operation in England alone. In Europe, Asia and parts of Africa, water wheels were used to drive a variety of industrial machinery, such as mills and pumps. The first effective water turbines appeared in the mid 19th century and it was not long before they were replacing water wheels in many applications.…...

Similar Documents

Power in High Micro Processor

...Term Paper on Power in a high performance microprocessor Submitted to: Submitted By: Mr. Abhijit Bhattacharyya Shubham Gupta Roll No. 20 SECTION: K1111   Acknowledgement  I have taken efforts in this Term Paper. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many classmates and my teacher. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I am highly indebted to Mr. Abhijit Bhattacharyya for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for their support in completing the project. My thanks and appreciations also go to my colleague in developing the project and people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities. Abstract Power consumption has become one of the biggest challenges in high-performance microprocessor design. The rapid increase in the complexity and speed of each new CPU generation is outstripping the......

Words: 2197 - Pages: 9

Micro

...* The Micro Dimension In this section, we will see more clearly the role of the smallest units which is the micro economic dimension. The previous section has described the macro and meso economic dimension. The macro level is the level of the individual in the organization. At the micro-level, also referred to as the local level, the research population typically is an individual in their social setting or a small group of individuals in a particular social context. Examples of micro-level levels of analysis include, but are not limited to, the following. * Alien, stateless person, asylum seeker, refugee * Person, citizen * Partnership, marriage * Families, household * Neighbourhood * Cases of maids abuse Malaysia is also not free from issues related to abusing the maids by employer. This crime is increasingly rising despite various actions committed by certain parties to overcome this crime. There are so many kinds of abuses made by the employers on their maid. Some of them have been beaten, raped, tortured with scalding water and nearly all have been treated like slaves and not paid for months or years of exhausting work, beaten, raped, tortured with scalding water and nearly all have been treated like slaves and not paid for months or years of exhausting work. Many still bear the scars, scalds and wounds inflicted on them for example like the former case of Nirmala Bonat. This can refer to The Star Online at ......

Words: 1984 - Pages: 8

Hydro Turbine Runner Design and Manufacturing

...International Journal of Materials, Mechanics and Manufacturing, Vol. 1, No. 2, May 2013 Hydro turbine Runner Design and Manufacturing Fatma Ayancik, Umut Aradag, Ece Ozkaya, Kutay Celebioglu, Ozgur Unver, and Selin Aradag  Abstract—This research describes a methodology for the parametric design, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) aided analysis and manufacturing of a Francis type hydro turbine runner. A Francis type hydro turbine consists of five components which are volute, stay vanes, guide vanes, runner and draft tube. The hydraulic performance of the turbine depends on the shape of the components; especially on the shape of the runner blades. The design parameters for the other components are affected by the runner parameters directly. Runner geometry is more complex than the other parts of the turbine. Therefore; to obtain accurate results and meet hydraulic expectations, CFD analyses and advanced manufacturing tools are necessary for the design and manufacturing of the hydro turbine runner. The turbine runner design methodology developed is presented using an actual potential hydraulic power plant in Turkey. Index Terms—CFD, francis turbine, runner, design and manufacturing. I. INTRODUCTION Turbines are used for hydropower generation. There are basically two types of hydraulic turbines, the first one is impulse and the second one is reaction type turbines. Impulse turbines work based on momentum principle; while in the reaction type turbines, the flow is fully...

Words: 2847 - Pages: 12

Power

...1. HIGHLIGHTS OF POWER SECTOR a Installed Generation Capacity (As on 31-07-08 ) All Thermal India Coal Gas Diesel MW 77198.88 14716.01 1199.75 %age 53.03 10.11 0.82 **Based on data as on 31.03.2008. b Capacity Addition Target during 11th Plan Hydro MW %age c 15627 19.9 Thermal 59693 75.8 Nuclear 3380 4.3 Total 78700 100.0 Hydro (Renewable) 4120.00 36158.76 2.83 24.84 Nuclear RES** Grand Total (MNRE) 12194.57 145587.97 8.38 100.00 Total 93114.64 63.96 Generation Capacity Addition Target/Achievement (2008-09) Hydro Target (MW) 1097.0 Achievement up to JULY' 08 (MW) 250.0 %age 22.8 Thermal Nuclear Total 9304.2 1319.8 14.2 660.0 0.0 0.0 11061.2 1569.8 14.2 d Electricity Generation Programme/achievement (2008-09) Hydro Programme MU 118450 Achievement up to JULY' 08 MU 41420.4 %age 34.97 e Thermal Nuclear Bhutan (Imp) 5624 2357.28 41.91 Total 631270 191002.85 30.26 19000 5352.86 28.17 774344 240133.42 31.01 Status of CEA Concurrence to Hydro Schemes Period Project report received Carry forward from Prev. year Under Accepted for Prelim. Exam concurrence 3 3 - Concurrence given by CEA Project reports returned to Developer 2007-08 2008-09 up to JULY' 08 13 4 3 4 2 10 2 f All India Thermal PLF (%) 2001-02 69.9 * Provisional 2002-03 72.2 2003-04 72.7 2004-05 74.8 2005-06 73.6 2006-07 76.8 2007-08 78.6 2008-09 ( UP TO JULY' 08)* 75.99 ENERGY SAVED IS ENERGY PRODUCED g All India Annual......

Words: 576 - Pages: 3

Power

...INFRASTRUCTURE & GOVERNMENT Power Sector in India White paper on Implementation Challenges and Opportunities For release at the Energy Summit, Nagpur - January 2010 KPMG IN INDIA Table of Contents 1 Indian Power Industry - Current Scenario & Opportunities Ahead 2 2 Central and State Utilities Dominate the Industry 3 3 Challenges and Risks 4 4 Project Management Principles to Address Challenges 10 5 Summary and Conclusion 12 1 Executive Summary While the power sector in India has witnessed a few success stories in the last 4-5 years, the road that lies ahead of us is dotted with innumerable challenges that result from the gaps that exist between what’s planned versus what the power sector has been able to deliver. This document highlights and quantifies some of these gaps and attempts to analyze the problem. The document builds on the risks prevalent in the industry, some prominent hurdles that the power sector has already crossed, and more importantly - others that various players have to overcome. Understanding these core issues & risks of the power sector help in identifying the opportunities that lie ahead; for example why is private sector participation an important requirement. A short peek at our past performances indicate that during the last three five year plans (8th, 9th and 10th), we have barely managed to achieve half of the capacity addition that was planned. As we enter the third year of the 11th......

Words: 5188 - Pages: 21

Case Study on Mini Hydro Power Plant & a Tea Factory

...objective of this initiative is to encourage the tea sector in East African region to develop Small Hydropower Projects with the aim of reducing operating costs, increasing power supply reliability and reducing greenhouse gas emissions during tea processing. The total project costs have been estimated at 7.1 MUS$ and 8.8 MUS$ respectively for Uganda and Kenya (95% is for the investment). The required equity from the BOO promoters (private company with or without tea factories) is 35% of the investment. After financial simulation and analysis, the calculated return on equity (RoE) was close to 15% when tea factories contribute to the investment. The pay-back period in the baseline scenario is about 18 and 12 years respectively for Uganda and Kenya. Despite rather high investment costs (3400 USD/kW in Uganda and 3000 USD/kW in Kenya), both projects are considered attractive. The 4 months study included hydrological, topographical and socio-economical field surveys conducted on Gura river in Kenya and Nchwera river in Uganda. Energy demand assessment and load forecast have been achieved for the tea factories and surrounding settlements (rural electrification component). The institutional framework has been analysed to identify the best options to promote, implement and operate SHP projects and to inject the excess power into the national grid. Lastly an environmental & social impact assessment study (ESIA) has been conducted in both countries. In Uganda, a SHP plant......

Words: 2091 - Pages: 9

Micro

...Micro paper (worth 20 points) * Ø Due: Thursday, Dec. 11, 2014 5:00PM CST * Ø Length: Approximately 1-2 pages typewritten, double-spaced, legible normal size fonts, normal margins * Ø Topic: a microbial pathogen (with certain pathogens, you may focus on some of the diseases that they cause – with approval), immunology topic (including autoimmunities) or with approval - a disease (i.e. toxic shock syndrome, endotoxic shock, ringworm, etc.). Other topics with approval only. * Ø Minimum of three references needed exclusive of Wikipedia and dictionary citations (you may use and list Wikipedia and dictionary citations but these may not count towards the needed three references) – one reference must be a textbook published this century (2000 or later – exceptions only with permission) * Ø Book citations in the following format: * Microbiology : An Introduction by Gerard Tortora, Berdell Funke and Christine Case, 11th edition, 2013, pp. 619-621 (or use MLA formatting). * Ø Web citations should include the entire web address (it should lead me to the exact place where you got your information). * Ø Most point deductions will be from; 1) not having three quality references, 2) not including the entire web address, 3) not including page numbers from book citations, 4) spelling/ proofreading errors and 5) from errors of fact. * Ø For extra credit – write a Bob question based on your paper topic (include answer) – worth up to 10......

Words: 309 - Pages: 2

Micro

...year 4 using year 4 as the base year. Compare your answers. |. Calculate the general rate of inflation per year for Xenia based on the CPI. Enter your findings in the table below. Year | Rate of Inflation | 1 | ---- | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | }. What does it mean if, when you calculate the annual rate of inflation, yet get a negative rate of inflation? Is a negative rate of inflation a good or bad outcome? Explain your answer fully. ~. Given your analysis has Joe’s nominal income kept up with the general rate of change in prices in Xenia over these four years? Explain your answer. If your answer is no, then calculate what his nominal income would need to equal in year 4 for his purchasing power in year 4 to be equal to his purchasing power in year 1. Answer: a. Cost of market basket in year 1 = (10)(1) + (2)(2) + (5)X = 34, this implies that X = $4 Cost of market basket in year 2 = (10)(1) + (2)Y + (5)(3) = 27, this implies that Y = $1 Cost of market basket in year 3 = (10)(2) + (2)(2) + (5)(4) = z, this implies that Z = $44 Cost of market basket in year 4 = (10)(3) + (2)(3) + (5)A, this implies that A = $5 Year | Price of Potatoes Per Pound | Price of Coffee Per Pound | Price of a Bag of Apples | Cost of Market Basket | 1 | $1 | $2 | $4 | $34 | 2 | $1 | $1 | $3 | $27 | 3 | $2 | $2 | $4 | $44 | 4 | $3 | $3 | $5 | $61 | b. To find the CPI for year n, use the following formula: CPI year n = [(Cost of market basket in year......

Words: 6112 - Pages: 25

Micro

...villages. Hence, it is easier to form groups that would follow a standardized procedure. This makes it easier to operate with the Grameen system in Bangladesh than in India. It is observed that the Grameen system is better suited for more densely populated areas. There are parts of India which are as densely populated as Bangladesh, and some of the Northern hill tracts, and some part of the Sundarbans, are fairly thinly populated. The population density in India is a little higher than 1/3rd that of Bangladesh. In the Grameen system, the groups avail micro-financial services from the Bank, while the SHGs are effectively a microbank carrying out their own savings mobilization and lending. The basic difference in the approaches of the Grameen system and the SHG model is that the former starts with microcredit and then graduates to micro-savings, while the SHG model is based on the concept of micro-savings leading to micro-credit. Thus, the SHG model is more sustainable from viability point of view. Though both the models are for the poor, yet Grameen system is more suited to the very poor category of people who may not have sufficient fund to generate the initial savings required in the SGH system. Unlike Bangladesh, India has a good network of commercial banks with almost 70% of the 80,000-odd bank branches located in the rural and semi-urban areas. Policies of the Government to make it mandatory for the banks to extend credit to the priority sector and also support......

Words: 388 - Pages: 2

Micro

...only to the sectoral equity caps, entry routes and other relevant sectoral regulations. The issue of de-reservation had been a subject of animated debate within government for more than twenty years. The Approach to the Eleventh Five Year Plan noted the adverse implications of reservation of products for exclusive manufacture by the MSEs and recommended the policy of progressive de-reservation. To facilitate further investments for technological up-gradation and higher productivity in the micro and small enterprises, 654 items have been taken off the list of items reserved for exclusive manufacture by the manufacturing micro and small enterprises in the last few years – reducing it to 21 at present. This has helped the sector in enlarging the scale of operations and also paved the way for entry of larger enterprises in the manufacture of these products in keeping with the global standards. Credit/Finance Credit is one of the critical inputs for the promotion and development of the micro and small enterprises. Some of the features of existing credit policy for the MSEs are: Priority Sector Lending: Credit to the MSEs is part of the Priority Sector Lending Policy of the banks. For the public and private sector banks, 40% of the net bank credit (NBC) is earmarked for the Priority Sector. For the foreign banks, however, 32% of the NBC is earmarked for the Priority Sector, of which 10% is earmarked for the MSE sector. Any shortfall in such lending by the foreign banks has to......

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

Hydro-Powered Vehicles in Japan

...------------------------------------------------- hydro-powered vehicles in Japan Felix Young November 9, 2015 November 9, 2015 At the beginning of 2015, the Japanese government announced it would invest 40 billion yen to promote the use of hydrogen energy and hydro-powered vehicles ahead of the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games (Mami Maruko, The Japan Times). Additionally, starting from 2016, consumers who purchase hydro-powered vehicle are going to receive subsidies worth 1 million yen in total (8300 USD). Using concepts such as law of demand, externality and market failures from an economic perspective, we are able to better interpret the reasoning behind these government policies as well as potential benefit and risk in the future. Japan is the third largest automobile market in the world with 4.7 million new cars registered annually (Statista Inc.). Among all the newly registered vehicles, only 30% of them use renewable energy such as hybrid fuels and electricity cells. Hydro-powered vehicle is still a relatively new concept to Japanese car market. However, replacing gasoline cars with hydrogen ones offer great benefit to the society. Thanks to the zero emission nature of hydrogen fuel, the greenhouse gas emission from the road will significantly go down. Environmental damage such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming can be reduced. Considering Japan’s high population density and urbanization state...

Words: 1596 - Pages: 7

Micro

...course materials, and take quizzes and exams. Your "Course ID" is: hervani46262 Make sure that you purchase only the textbook with the ISBN# provided below. Do not buy "Used" textbook or any other textbook with different ISBN#. If you purchase a "Used Textbook", you will not have an "Access Code" or if you purchase a textbook with different ISBN# than listed below, then you will not have a valid "Access Code" and will not be able to register for this course. Your "Access Code" comes from the textbook that you purchase (or purchased separately on line). The website to register is: http://pearsonmylabandmastering.com/ and follow the instructions.  REQUIRED TEXTBOOK: Roger LeRoy Miller, Student Value Edition for “Economics Today: The Micro View” plus NEW MEL/ETX SAC, 18/E, (ISBN-13: 9780134004952), Publisher: Prentice Hall, Copyright: 2015.                  You must also click on the Course Syllabus so that you can have a copy of Syllabus to print. The Course Syllabus outlines the deadlines for quizzes and exams and when they will be available on line and when they expire. You must meet the deadlines or you will loose the points that are assigned to each Quiz or Exam. You must purchase the textbook along with the "Access Code" included in the textbook by the first day of classes, January 11th. This course does NOT use CSU MOODLE to post assignments. It uses the textbook publisher’s website, “MyLab/Mastering”. Registering for this course at CSU and paying the......

Words: 782 - Pages: 4

Power System

...and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and bio fuels) accounted for another 3% and are growing very rapidly.[1] The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 19%, with 16% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables.[2] Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 198 gigawatts (GW) in 2010,[3][4] and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and theUnited States.[5] At the end of 2010, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 40 GW[6][7][8] and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain.[9] Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of these is the 354 megawatt (MW) SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert.[10]The world's largest geothermal power installation is the Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugarcane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country's automotive fuel.[11] Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA. While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development.[12] As of 2011, small solar PV systems provide electricity to a few million households, and micro-hydro configured into mini-grids serves many more.......

Words: 439 - Pages: 2

Hydro One

...The Rise and Evolution of the Chief Risk Officer: Enterprise Risk Management at Hydro One by Tom Aabo, Aarhus School of Business, John R. S. Fraser, Hydro One, Inc., and Betty J. Simkins, Oklahoma State University T he Chinese symbols for risk shown above capture a key aspect of enterprise risk management. The first symbol represents “danger” and the second “opportunity.” Taken together, they suggest that risk is a strategic combination of vulnerability and opportunity. Viewed in this light, enterprise risk management represents a tool for managing risk in a way that enables the corporation to take advantage of valueenhancing opportunities. A missed strategic opportunity can result in a greater loss of (potential) value than an unfortunate incident or adverse change in prices or markets. As in the past, many organizations continue to address risk in “silos,” with the management of insurance, foreign exchange risk, operational risk, credit risk, and commodity risks each conducted as narrowly focused and fragmented activities. Under the new enterprise risk management (ERM) approach, all would function as parts of an integrated, strategic, and enterprise-wide system.1 And while risk management is coordinated with senior-level oversight, employees at all levels of the organization are encouraged to view risk management as an integral and ongoing part of their jobs. While there are theoretical arguments for corporate risk management,2 the main drivers for...

Words: 3236 - Pages: 13

Power Energy

...POWER AND ENERGY INDUSTRY IN INDIA 1. OVERVIEW OF INDIA’S POWER SECTOR 1.1 Background India's power market is the fifth largest in the world. The power sector is high on India's priority as it offers tremendous potential for investing companies based on the sheer size of the market and the returns available on investment capital. Contribution from different sources of power generation Gas based 10% Coal based Gas based Hydro Renewable Nuclear Diesel Source: Ministry of Power, Government of India Almost 55 per cent of this capacity is based on coal, about 10 per cent on gas, 26 per cent on hydro, approximately 5 per cent on renewable sources, about 3 per cent on nuclear and 1 per cent on diesel. In the past five years, there has been a much greater emphasis on transmission and distribution reforms. The government aims to provide "power to all" by 2012. To achieve that promise, it will have to add as much as 1,00,000 MW of generation capacity, cut AT&C losses substantially to below 20 per cent, rationalize tariffs and ensure that average revenue realization is greater than the cost of production. It will have to continue to push the process of reform and restructuring and ensure greater private participation, in every segment. In the past few years, there has been considerable growth in power plants based on renewable sources of energy. The Plant Load Factor (PLF) of generating plants has improved consistently over the last 10 years. The share of thermal power...

Words: 5128 - Pages: 21