Prison and Group Formation

In: Social Issues

Submitted By tklein18
Words 2737
Pages 11
Prison Gangs Through the Lens of Tuckman’s Theory of Group Formation

Money, narcotics, and protection, what more could a prisoner ask for? If that question is ever solved then the answer to the prison gang epidemic may be found. Prison gangs, by nature, are a group just like any other, and thus go through the same group formation process as any other group. A key part of this process is adjourning, the stage where group members are satisfied with the group and leave. However, the adjourning stage hasn’t occurred as much in prison gangs as people would like. By showing that prison gangs go through the rest of the stages of group formation, it will be shown that they could go through the final stage of adjourning.
Tuckman’s Group Formation Theory Bruce Tuckman first created his group formation theory in 1965 after studying 50 articles on the topic of group formation. He extrapolated from those 50 articles a general concept for group formation. This concept of group formation recognizes that every group has a task that it must complete, and interpersonal relationships between the group members (Tuckman 1965). This concept originally stated that the group goes through four different stages of dealing with the task and interpersonal relationships: forming, storming, norming, and performing (Tuckman 1965). A fifth category, adjourning, was added in 1977 (Tuckman and Jensen). Forming is the stage in which group members test the boundaries of both the interpersonal relationships of the group and of the group task (Tuckman 1965). Group members attempt to work out what is acceptable in their interpersonal relations with other members by testing the boundaries of these relationships and by looking for guidance from well-established members and norms (Tuckman 1965). In this stage group members will also attempt to realize the task by defining its goals and how the…...

Similar Documents


...Jail and Prisons Archie Parks CJA/204 November 27, 2011 Ross Thompson Jail and Prisons Introduction Prisons and Jails play an intricate part in the criminal justice corrections system. They are responsible for housing and rehabilitating some of the United States most dangerous criminals. This paper will explain the different types of prisons explain prison concepts and discuss why jails are important in the criminal justice system. In addition, prison strategies for dealing with violent behavior and the role parole plays in the strategic handling of inmates. Types of prisons There are four types of prisons within the United States Criminal Justice system. Each of the four types are stated below: 1. Local Prison: Local prisons within the United States criminal justice system are commonly referred to as Jails. Jails are used by cities to detain persons who have been accused of committing a crime while awaiting trial when bail has not been granted or cannot be paid. County Jails can detain prisoners for up to 18 months. 2. State Prisons: State Prisons are prisons who maintained by the state and used to house criminals who have been convicted of violating state statutes. State prisons are maintained and managed utilizing funds from the state budget. 3. Federal Prisons: Federal Prisons are used to house criminals who have been convicted of violating federal laws. Federal prisons are maintained by the Federal Government and are maintained and managed......

Words: 1271 - Pages: 6


...Today, prisons all over the world is overpopulated and most of the expenses are paid in account on the taxpayers’ behalf. Some inmates are not necessarily criminals, but prison seems to be the solution to anybody that slightly troubled the law. In Julia Sudbury’s Maroon Abolitionists, anti-prison groups strongly discouraged the Prison-Industrial Complex and worked against it to prevent private corporations from making profits and focused to imply a correctional facility to better the individual. With significant increases in population of inmates yearly, it is crucial to seek improvement in correcting the system and treated with fair access. Prison-Industrial Complex (PIC) is an interaction that shares interest of all who helps expand the prison system for personal profits, from monetary profits, political power, control of resources, ownership of properties, etc… It is a system where the private corporate put their self before others and for personal benefits. Inmates are often discriminated based on their race, gender, or culture so the private prison companies can reach their potential power. In Julia Sudbury, Maroon Abolitionists, she showed that the U.S. currently incarcerates approx. 2.3 million people, similarly 762 per 100,000. There are 167,000 prisoners in all of California. 60% of those incarcerated in prison are an ethnic minority. Statistics showed that three quarters of all inmates for drug related offenses are people of color. 1 in every 8 black males in......

Words: 905 - Pages: 4


...The Current Status of Prison Privatization Research on American Prisons Gerald G. Gaes. Ph. D. Florida State University August 2010 Introduction In many ways, any discussion of prison privatization strikes at the heart of the fundamental goals and purposes of prison and punishment. The discussion elevates such themes as the role of the private sector in administering punishment, the importance of metrics to evaluate and compare how well the privately and publicly operated prisons provide services, the structure and form of oversight and accountability to insure punishment is just and fair, and the measurement of cost and efficiency. To be sure, many of these issues are crucial even in the absence of a privatization debate. However, because there are impassioned proponents and opponents on both sides of the issue, the prison privatization literature has provoked both earnest debate and fractious polemic. One might expect that the importance of this topic would have elevated prison privatization research and encouraged the funding of large scale studies. In fact, there are very few studies comparing privately and publicly operated facilities. Segal and Moore (2002) identified about 23 U.S. cost comparison studies and fewer quality studies. Many of those studies were of questionable value. The most recent review, a meta-analysis by Lundahl et. al. (2009) only identified 12 studies of cost and quality meeting their criteria for sound methodology. Even......

Words: 5026 - Pages: 21


...Formation interne Qu'est-ce que la formation interne ? Une formation interne est une formation organisée par l'entreprise au bénéfice de l'un ou plusieurs de ses salariés. L'entreprise s’occupe de la conception du stage, du contenu pédagogique et de l'organisation pratique du déroulement. La formation interne peut se dérouler dans les locaux de l’entreprise ou en dehors. Important : si une partie de la formationa lieu sur les lieux de production, ou au poste de travail du stagiaire, celle-ci doit respecter des conditions précises pour être considérée comme une formation. Il est obligatoire d'en informer les représentants du personnel. Les formateurs peuvent être soit des salariés de l'entreprise soit, sous certaines conditions, des formateurs extérieurs, qui interviennent à la demande de l’entreprise pour des activités spécifiques. Temps de formation et rémunération ? La rémunération des salariés pendant leur formation obéit à des règles différentes selon que celle-ci est organisée pendant ou en dehors du temps de travail habituel. En règle générale, les actions de formation inscrites dans le plan de formation se déroulent pendant le temps de travail, dans le cadre de l'horaire normal de l'entreprise. Dans ce cas, la rémunération est maintenue. La réalisation de la formation en dehors du temps de travail, c'est-à-dire sur des temps habituellement non travaillés (jours de congés payés, de RTT, soirées...) est possible. Les règles relatives à la rémunération du......

Words: 1866 - Pages: 8

The Formation of Groups & Teams

...head: Rapfael Whiteside, THE FORMATION OF GROUPS & TEAMS The Formation of Groups & Teams Rapfael Whiteside Embry Riddle Aeronautical University MGMT 317 Organizational Behavior 01 December 2010 In this paper I will explain how and why teams and groups are formed, the different types of groups and effectiveness of work groups. The process of a group activity is the interaction and mutual influence among group members as they complete the group activity, communication, leadership, conflict, conflict resolutions and norms of behavior in the group. A group is two or more people who interact with each other to achieve certain goals or needs. The purpose is to accomplish the same goal using my skills, personalities, abilities and experiences to be more effective. “Group forming is a process and there are five stages for group development: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.” (Hunter, Dale, Bailey, Anne, Taylor, Bill, 1995). Some characteristics of work groups that influence or affect the way members behave in the area of group performance can include the group size, group composition, group function, group status, group efficacy and social facilitation. Groups control their members with roles and rules. Role is the division of work among the group members. Rules are made to control group behavior. Work groups establish goals to achieve,......

Words: 3785 - Pages: 16

Prison Gangs in Canadian Prisons

...An Investigation of Gang types and Prison Misconduct” - Ruddel, R., Gottschall, S. (May 5, 2011) To date, there has been very little scholar investigation towards the different types of gangs in Canadian penitentiaries, and their unique contributions to prison misconduct. Gangs in the correctional system are one the biggest problems facing correctional staff and administrators. Does every gang pose the same threat towards the Canadian correctional system? This study is an attempt at comparing the various gang members admitted into the correctional system between January 1, 2006 and August 31, 2009. It examines the offence-related characteristics of 1,636 gang members compared to 1,649 non-gang member counterparts. The 5 distinct types of gangs studied are: Aboriginal, Asian, street, outlaw motorcycle (OMG), and traditional organized crime (TOC). This study revealed that there are, in fact, distinct characteristics to each gangs conduct in the correctional system: Aboriginals have highest misconduct, highest rates of previous incarceration; street gangs were similar in violence but had less previous prison sentences; OMG had lower involvement in violent offences, but had longest sentences. Aboriginal gangs being the most violent, then Asian and street, followed by OMG gangs and TOC as the least. The closer examinations of these security threat groups (STG) suggest that the correctional system should imply different strategies to counter prison misconduct with gangs. Instead......

Words: 2013 - Pages: 9


...time are housed at these privately run institutions. Of the 1.57 million prisoners under arrest in state and federal prisons as of 2012, 137,220 were housed at private correctional the percentage of the U.S. prison population housed in private institutions increased from 8.2 percent in 2011, to 8.7 percent in 2012. Public prisons are government run institutions and, as such, are area under discussion to the laws of the control in which they are placed. In this organization, problems in such prisons can be addressed by the responsible governmental unit. Data reports pertaining to federal correctional institutions are maintained by the Bureau of Prisons (“BOP”), a component of the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”), as well as Immigration and Customs Enforcement (“ICE”), a component of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (“DHS”) that handles immigration detentions. Both agencies are subject to the Freedom of Information Act (“FOIA”), which provides the public with a method to access these records. State and local government run prisons as well generate records that are subject to the open records laws of the states in which they are to be found. By dissimilarity, private prisons are not issue to the FOIA and normally are not subject to state open records laws. Current efforts to expand state open records laws to private prisons on the theory the prisons are performance as “public agencies” within the sense of the significant state law have had some achievement. State......

Words: 580 - Pages: 3


...| A NEW CONCEPT FOR THE MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS | MISSOURI REENTY PROCESs | 1004,433 and counting. The Missouri Department of Corrections continues to grow by leaps and bounds. The Missouri Prison population as of 08-2009 consists of 104,433 inmates. This includes both male and female inmates. Missouri seeks to stem the tide of inmates, by using a new concept called the Missouri Reentry Process. At this time, there are approximately 104,433 inmates being supervised by the Missouri Department Of Corrections. There are 53,437 on Probation, 30,608 incarcerated, 17,663 on Parole, and 2,725 on Interstate compact. There are also many Inmates supervised by Community and Institutional Programs. There are 681 in Community Release Centers, 235 in Residential Facilities, 988 on Electronic Monitoring, 4,328 in Community Treatment Centers, and 2,491 in Drug Court. While the number of Inmates continue to grow in Missouri, there is a solution in site. The solution is a new concept called the Missouri Reentry Process. Prior to the Missouri Reentry Process, inmates were pretty much on their own when they were released. If the inmate was released on Probation or Parole, they were expected to comply with any and all stipulations assigned to them by the Probation and Parole Board. The stipulation were in place to keep track of their progress when returning to society. Some inmates that had been sentenced to short term incarceration, like a 120 day call back or......

Words: 1558 - Pages: 7


...compétences. On est entrain de basculer d'un système de qualification a un système de compétence. La formation ou développement des compétences devient donc un outils très important chez les entreprises et chez la société aussi. Parce que c'est pas seulement les entreprises qui font la formation et développe les compétences de leurs employés mais le gouvernement aussi fait partie prenante. Les entreprises capitaliste d'aujourd'hui s'intéressent moins au sociale, elles n'investissent pas dans des formations qui peuvent être bénéfique aux travailleurs mais va pas avoir un retour pour l'entreprise. Cela nous emmène a conclure que les entreprises capitalistes investissent dans des formations spécialisées ou spécifiques, comme ca l'employé est formé selon les critères du poste ou des postes qu'il occupe dans une entreprise donnée, or cette formation ne lui sera bénéfique que pour le poste qu'il occupe et pour l'entreprise qui travaille avec. Cette formation spécialisée ne se trouve pas chez les concurrents de l'entreprise et puis cette formation décourage les employés a quitter l'entreprise. Pendant que les entreprises optent pour la formation spécialisée, le gouvernement quand a lui a recours a la formation générale. Le gouvernement dépense des sommes intéressantes dans le but de développer les compétences de ces citoyens afin de couvrir leurs lacunes et les leurs donner une formation initiale et fondamentale qui leurs permettra de répondre aux exigences des employeurs aux......

Words: 521 - Pages: 3


...two models, the Eastern model and the Auburn model, were what were required to build these prisons, the amount of staff to run them and the work done by the prisoners. In the Eastern model, there are individual cells where inmates spend their days doing individual work. They are even brought their meals to their cell so that they keep with being isolated. With this type of set-up, it required a large number of guards and staff to be able to keep it running. Whereas, the Auburn model, is more of what we think of today with prisons in that the inmates are not kept in isolation and work in groups. They did not require as much staff because they were able to supervise and feed the inmates in groups. The benefit of the Eastern model was that it fit more closely with what the ideal of a penitentiary was, in how the inmates were housed, fed, guarded and given work. The drawbacks of the Eastern model were that it was expensive to keep up with staff, the inmates did not produce the same type of work as those in the Auburn model, and psychological effects of being in solitary confinement were considered to be cruel and unusual punishment. With the Auburn model, it had the benefits of being cheaper to maintain and run. Inmates were able to work in groups in producing more cost effective goods to be sold. The drawbacks of the Eastern model were that these individuals were in groups which could be disorderly and hard to deal with in case of problems. It also had the......

Words: 747 - Pages: 3


...institution or at Valley State Prison, the nation's second-largest women's prison, which recently opened across the street. The compounds occupy the tiny farm town of Chowchilla, where almond and alfalfa groves surround the 50,000-volt electrified fence. To the crop dusters above, the flat gray-and-peach buildings must look like a giant corrections butterfly, shielding up to 8,000 women in the 1,340-acre spread of its cinder-block wings. The predominant types of offenses women tend to commit -- petty theft, check forgery, drug possession -- are nonviolent and low-level, yet women's rates of incarceration have steadily gone up, surpassing men's for the past 14 years. The increases are largely due to changes in sentencing and drug laws, and all the trouble that rides the particular poverty track most of these women are on. Many receive state-prison terms for crimes that previously earned probation. Between 1986 and 1991, the number of women in state prisons for drug offenses increased 433 percent (compared with 283 percent for men). Nationally, at the beginning of this year, there were 69,028 women in state prisons -- more than 9,600 in California alone. What this means is that the days of minivans with matrons escorting serious offenders to reformatory-style prisons are receding as more tractor-trailers pull into view. In the world of corrections, an inmate is an inmate is an inmate. In the nation's imagination, too, all inmates are the same. Yet prison administrators,......

Words: 630 - Pages: 3


...There are two types of facilities that incarcerate offenders. Prisons tend to be the long term placement of an offender who is serving more than a year for their sentence. There are different security levels for prisons as well as gender specific locations. Jails are limited to those who are sentenced to less than a year. They also house those waiting transportation as well as witnesses to ensure they attend a court hearing. There are a few levels of security within prisons. They include minimum and medium security, close security, maximum security, supermax, and federal prisons. Minimum and medium security prisons have multiple inmates sleeping in a locked dormitory style setting with communal showers and toilets. The minimum security prison will have a single fence, watched by guards, while the medium security facility is equipped with a double fence which is patrolled. A close security prison is controlled from a remote control station and has one or two person cells, which include their own toilet and sink. Correction programs and work assignments will allow the prisoners to leave their cell, as well as the common area or exercise yard. The boundary is patrolled by a watchtower as well as two fences with an electric fence dividing the two. Depending on the location, some maximum security prisons force prisoners in their cells for 23 hours a day with no contact between the prisoners. The cells are controlled with sliding doors controlled......

Words: 1287 - Pages: 6


...s t i t u t e Table of Contents Introduction: The national and local problem of drug imprisonment 3 Methodology 4 Finding 1: Treatment can be less expensive than a term of imprisonment 5 Finding 2: Treatment can be cost effective 6 Finding 3: Treatment can reduce substance abuse and recidivism while building communities 9 Finding 4: Promising treatment models exist in Maryland and around the country 11 Maryland: Break The Cycle The Correctional Options Program (COP) Drug Courts: Maryland and the National Perspective California’s Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act (SACPA) 11 12 13 14 Conclusion: Drug treatment can be more effective than cycling people in and out of prison 18 Endnotes 20 About the Authors Treatment or Incarceration? was primarily authored by Doug McVay, former research director for Common Sense for Drug Policy, a non-profit dedicated to expanding discussion on drug policy by educating the public about alternatives to current policies. He is the author and editor of Drug War Facts, an annual compendium of reliable information on the impact of the drug policy on criminal justice and public health issues. This brief was co-authored by Vincent Schiraldi and Jason Ziedenberg, who are, respectively, Executive Director and Director of Policy and Research of the Justice Policy Institute, a Washington DC-based public policy organization dedicated to ending society’s reliance......

Words: 8236 - Pages: 33


...I would describe the prison environment as a tough a scary environment. There are numerous different types of criminals and you do not get to chose who your cellmate is. I think this creates a scary environment because some inmates commit more severe crimes then others, and it might be scary to live with someone 24/7 and not know what they are going to do to you when you go to sleep. The prison environment influence institutional management and custodies in many different ways. There are cliques in prison that range from gang groups, the white supremacist, and black cliques. When dealing with all of these different groups you have to be mindful of what is going on around you and you have to be sensitive to the races. Certain Strategies were put in place to separate these groups if things happened. They separate groups, put leaders in isolation; they also have started special teams to deal with these types of issues. I think any change would improve institutional management. I think if the prisons were actually controlled by the court system that might help. Maybe they could implement some sort of systems to put fear in the inmates so that they are easily maintained and understand what will happen if they have the slightest issues or cause the slightest problems within the prison system. Secure custody is when there is a request by workers from the prison to move someone, whether it is because they are a sex offender or various other offenders, this is done to ensure......

Words: 284 - Pages: 2


...he purpose of prisons has been changing throughout history. He went from being a mere means for retaining a sentence I expected to be a sentence in itself. In some countries (mostly democratic), a medium that had as objective the protection of society from that which could be dangerous to her while trying to reintegration, but also could be used as a means of political pressure in difficult times. Michel Foucault in his "Surveiller et punish" ( Discipline and Punish ) notes that its use as punitive punishment of crime, is a recent phenomenon that was instituted during the nineteenth century . Earlier, jail, only used to hold prisoners who were waiting to be sentenced (or not) effectively (punishment, execution or rejection). The prisoners were held in the same space, regardless of their offense and had to pay child support. The disruption was such that the same crime suspects could, with ease, change the version of events before processing. The application of justice at the time was in the public domain. It showed the torture to which they were subjected defendants and their executions. Michel Foucault mentions the large venues or the ship of fools, as particular examples of detention prior to the modern era. Contrary to the conviction that establishes a prison sentence on the offense, the prisons of the time served as a means of exclusion for all marginalized people (criminals, crazy, sick, orphaned, homeless, prostitutes, etc..) All were imprisoned, haphazardly, to......

Words: 623 - Pages: 3