Ribosome Pathogenicity

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Submitted By tarastokes12
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According to Black, a prokaryotic cell is defined as lacking a nucleus and other membrane-enclosed structures. An example of a prokaryotic cell is a bacterium. “Most bacteria on this planet, both in the environment and living in and on humans, are member of the domain Bacteria.” There are many different structures within the bacteria cells, but the focus in this case will be on the ribosome. (Black, 2008)

A bacillus, which is a rodlike bacterium, contains many different cell structures. It has a flagellum, which consists of fibrils and flagellin, a cell wall, that maintains the characteristic shape of the cell and prevents the bursting of the cell, and pili, that acts in an attachment or conjugation nature. The focus of this paper, the organelle ribosome, is made up of protein and RNA, and are spherical in shape. In most cases, especially with the bacteria, are clustered in polyribosome chains. To determine the size of a ribosome, one must measure how fast or slow they move toward the bottom of a tube in a centrifuge while it is being spun. This is know as the sedimentation rate of a ribosome. These sedimentation rates are measured in Svedberg units (S) and bacterial ribosomes measure at a rate of 70S, and their subunits somewhere between 30S and 50S. (Black, 2008)

It is important to know that ribosomes present in prokaryotes are slightly different than those found in eukaryote. One difference is their size. This is important when treating the bacteria with antibiotics. Antibiotics are made specifically to bind to specific size ribosomes. For example, streptomycin will attach to a 70S ribosome in order halt the protein synthesis within. Because the eurkaryotic ribosomes have larger Svedberg units, they are not affected, but the bacterial ribosomes are allowed to be killed off, leaving behind the healthy ribosomes needed for protein synthesis with…...

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