Scholasticism

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Scholasticism is the theological and philosophical movement that tried to use the classical Greco-Roman philosophy to understand the religious revelation of Christianity. It was the dominant theological and philosophical thought of medieval times, after the patristic thinking of late antiquity. It was based on the coordination between faith and reason, with the established assumption that reason was subordinate to faith.

It dominated in the cathedral schools and general studies leading to medieval European universities. However, its origins are heterogeneous in nature as it adapted not only Greco-Latin philosophical thinking, but also Arab and Jewish[1].

Scholasticism can also be defined as a method of intellectual work where all thought is subject to the principle of authority, and teaching could be limited in principle to the repetition of ancient texts, especially of the Bible which was considered the main source of knowledge. Despite this scholasticism encouraged speculation and reasoning, as it involved a rigid logical framework and a schematic structure of debates[2] exposed rebuttals in order to prepare defenses.

The heyday of scholasticism in the thirteenth century coincides with the foundation of universities and emergence the mendicant orders (Dominicans and Franciscans, mostly), from which come most theologians and philosophers of the time.[3] Undoubtedly one of the most influential scholastic is Saint Thomas Aquinas. His work, Summa Theologia accepted the Aristotelian concepts of empiricism and hylomorphism and the distinction between two kinds of intellect[4] .

He developed a sort of Platonic-Aristotelian merger, Thomism[5], with its cosmological arguments for the existence of God. The demarcation between philosophy and religious belief held by Aquinas begins the process of independence of reason from the next century that will eventually…...

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