Theory of Literature

In: Science

Submitted By phoebe26able
Words 2739
Pages 11
7 октября 2010 г. лекция №1

Теория литературы: - поэтика (1 семестр); - теория лит. процесса (2 семестр + осн. лит-вед. школы и направления).

Гуманитарные и точные науки. Проблемы научности литературоведения

Первый, кто поставил под сомнение традиц. понимание научности, - Томас Кун: наука – понятие во многом социально и культурно обусловленное. Он выдвигает понятие парадигмы – некие признанные в данный момент научным сообществом мировоззренческие установки, кот. дают модели постановки проблем и их решения. Поскольку наука – часть культурной и соц. жизни, в ней, как в социуме, складываются какие-то взаимоотношения, не всегда рациональные, но общепринятые. И часто парадигма оказывается сильнее, чем рациональность. Фиерабенд – проповедник научного анархизма. Осмысляет науку как явление культуры. Предлагает рассматривать её как литературу или живопись. Если учёный сумел себя позиционировать, то это наука. Критерии научности: - объект исследования; - метод исследования; - результат исследования. Объект не может выступать в качестве разграничиеля науки и не-науки. Единственное: наука должна изучать объекты реально существующие и доступные для изучения. По объекту и предмету можно лишь отграничивать науки друг от друга. Три трактовки (объект-предмет): 1) Объект – фрагмент реальности («Евгений Онегин»); предмет – его свойства (образ Евгения); 2) Наоборот; 3) Разграничение предмета и объека методологически ошибочно, т.к. объект мы не изучаем, а изучаем предмет ( синонимы. Метод – система действий, нацеленная на достижение определённого результата. Главное требование: взаимомотивированность всей ментальных и физических операций, выполняемых над объектом исследования. Если в ходе исследования используются априорные положения, они должны быть…...

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