Use of Probiotics in Infants with Diarrhea Associated with Antibiotics

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Use of Probiotics in Infants with Diarrhea Associated with Antibiotics
Chris Student
Chamberlain College of Nursing
NR 449: Evidence-Based Practice
November, 2014

Use of Probiotics in Infants with Diarrhea Associated with Antibiotics
Clinical Question
The problem this paper addresses is whether probiotics can be an effective preventative measure for diarrhea when a child is prescribed an antibiotic. The significance of this problem is that diarrhea can lead to serious complications in the very young and the elderly. Based on a six-month prospective cohort study by Vernacchio et al. (2006), diarrhea in infants and young children was reported to be 2.2 episodes per person-year with a median duration of 2 days. More of these were caused by viruses than bacteria. Although recent data are unavailable, a 1991 study by Glass, Lew, Gangarose, and LeBaron indicated that 325-425 children in the US die of diarrheal disease every year and 2.1 to 3.7 million children are seen by a physician for diarrheal diseases. C difficile infections are among the most serious causes of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and their incidence in hospitalized infants has been increasing (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, 2013). The major pathophysiology of the diarrhea associated with antibiotics is disturbance of the normal flora in the GI tract.
The specific clinical question guiding the search for a quantitative research article is: In hospitalized pediatric patients taking antibiotics, does taking probiotics decrease the risk of antibiotic associated diarrhea?
Population- hospitalized pediatric patients taking antibiotics
Intervention- taking probiotics
Comparison- not taking probiotics
Outcome- reduction in diarrhea
Probiotics is the independent variable (IV) in this question and diarrhea is the dependent variable (DV). The population is…...

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