Women & Franco

In: Historical Events

Submitted By jlynnmariem
Words 2547
Pages 11
5. Why did the Franco regime seek to reverse gains made by Spanish women in the early twentieth century?

Indisputably, General F. Franco’s dictatorship in a “Nationalist Spain” truncated both social and political progress made by women throughout the period of the early 1900s. In order to discuss the crucial motives for the totalitarian regime’s reversal of such developments, a brief historical background of European stances on the roles of women must firstly be examined. As established by H. Graham, attempts at preserving socio-cultural conservatism to uphold political ideologies during this era were geared primarily towards the reiteration of traditional gender roles in society. The influence of existent policies in a Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany at this time were, undoubtedly, of great influence on Franco’s regime. Earlier legislation enforcing this conservative perspective in Spain confirms such views, in that under these laws women could only conduct certain economic affairs, make purchases and sign contracts under supervision of a dominant husband - “el permiso marital” being required. This concept of subordination to men permeated Spanish society, restricting women to lives of exclusive domesticity. As ‘queen of the home’, the majority of middle and lower class women were uneducated illiterates, generally ignorant and uninvolved in political affairs and indoctrinated by traditions of Catholicism supremacy. However, several feminist organisations formed in the early twentieth century under the Primo de Rivera rule, along with ensuing reforms under the

Second Spanish Republic such as the granting of woman’s suffrage, shifts towards secularization and the implementation of the 1932 Divorce Law, reflected changing times and promoted a modernised society, inclusive of a free-thinking “new” woman. Despite the gradual evolution of the female being…...

Similar Documents


...When women say they want real men, they’re talking about a guy who is both “Bad” and “sweet.” An abundance of women tend to label the men they prefer as “bad boys” when in all actuality they are referring to someone who is sexy, bold, and ambitious. As in sexy I mean someone who is not afraid to express their attraction for another person. Sexiness can be shown in many ways such as through flirtatious stares, gestures, or conversations. Of course not every man is sexy, but may hold another prominent characteristic trait every women desire, which is “sweetness.” Women sometimes overestimate their true predilection, and they believe what they really want is a sweet and caring man. In reality they really want someone who is willing to listen to them, embrace them, and care for them - a gentleman, someone who is polite (respectful, well educated, and friendly). Now, we all certainly know that women are always searching for the “perfect guy.” Any women, who searches for a “bad boy” and receives anything physical, other than affection, misunderstood their true desire of a bad guy. And any women who accept a “sweet” man who doesn’t embrace everything they have to offer then they are definitely misled. Men, if you read this please take this into consideration and try to find it in you to be the best at being both sexy and polite {of course at the appropriate time (place never really matters ;)} I bet your woman would be so satisfied that the love you crave and desire would be 2......

Words: 276 - Pages: 2

Un Franco, 14 Pesetas

...Un franco, catorce pesetas. INTRODUCCIÓN En la España de 1960, dos amigos, Martín y Marcos, deciden marcharse a Suiza en busca de trabajo. Martín, al haber perdido su empleo, se ve obligado a viajar con el objetivo de conseguir el dinero para pagar un piso del cual su mujer había dado su entrada. Marcos, por su parte, se marcha para hacer dinero. Después de no obtener el permiso de trabajo, deciden irse haciéndose pasar por turistas. Para ello llevan una gran suma de dinero para que en la frontera les dejen entrar. Van a un pueblo del norte de Suiza, y allí encuentran trabajo como mecánicos fresadores. Al poco tiempo de estar allí se dan cuenta de lo diferente que es todo: calles vacías, higiene, comodidades, etc. Después de un año, Pilar, al darse cuenta de la estafa del piso en el que habían invertido todos los ahorros enviados por Martín, decide viajar a Suiza con su hijo para ir con su marido con la excusa del cumpleaños de este. Así acaba la vida de soltero de los dos emigrantes. Pilar comienza a trabajar y su hijo a ir al colegio. Allí alquilan un piso y comienzan a tener una vida familiar. Cinco años después, totalmente integrados a la cultura suiza, reciben la noticia de que el padre de Martín se está muriendo. Este, con miedo de no poder despedirse, vuelve a España, aunque cuando llega su padre ya ha fallecido. Al regresar a Suiza convence a su familia para volver a España y con los ahorros de cinco años se compran un piso. Al llegar, después de tantos años en un...

Words: 897 - Pages: 4


...Women’s roles are constantly changing. In early America, society believed that women were wives to their husbands and mothers to their children. They were there to serve the men in their lives. Young girls were required to obey the commands of their fathers, and women were to fulfill the wishes of their husbands. The men believed that this was their right. They believed that women’s job was to bolster the men’s self-esteem and to ensure that men were forever kings of their own domains. However, this belief changed drastically in the mid-nineteenth century, and by early twentieth century, women began to make statements of their own. They wanted women’s rights in marriage, voting and employment. Women became outspoken people with their own views and wishes. This change was neither simple nor easy. It took time for women’s power to emerge. Many women were successful in establishing their own identities. Freeman portrays both single and married women as strong willed characters. The women “actively determine and maintain places of their own choosing and enclosing [enclose] themselves in situations and choices that reflect personalities and purpose conducive to the affirmation” (Daniel 2). They act only to maintain their true selves. These women do not care what society will think of them or how men will react. They strongly believe that what they are doing will better themselves as people and as women. “A New England Nun” is an accurate portrayal of a self-sufficient woman......

Words: 2321 - Pages: 10


...advanced. She discovers a state ruled by women, where men are timid and passive, and trained to cook and clean. In other words, Ladyland is an imaginary country where women are dominant over men, and women hold supreme power. Additionally, Ladyland turns out to be futuristic ideal world where women are beyond the segregated Purdah, and men live in isolation and secluded in quarters called mardana (Hossain 1905; 8-9). Ladyland is ruled politically and socially by women and they take place in a public sphere whereas men are confined to private and hidden world. Men are not taken into much consideration in Ladyland. By creating a fantasy world in which women play a dominant role, “Sultana’s Dream” compels us to perceive women’s potential to innovate, to create our own world and to exercise power in men’s world in which women are not demoralized. The proverb “Men and women are two wheels of the same chariot, without one the other cannot exist” or “Men and women are two sides of the same coin” tend to equalize men and women in every aspects of life. However, both the proverbs turn out to be fictional. Here, in world of discrimination, no women get equal priorities and opportunities that men take advantage off. The fact is that the world is conquered by men only from generations, where as women suffer from sub ordination and oppression. The practice of Purdah is tied with family status and honor that reflects respect in the community. Women are allowed with limited freedom where......

Words: 1018 - Pages: 5


...Media representation of women Media have been reflectors of dominant values and work as an active agency aiming at reinforcing and strengthening dominant value structure. There is no doubt that mass media like TV, film, radio newspapers and magazines mould opinion, thinking, attitudes and behaviour. TV and films are more powerful as their reach and impact is greater than that of other media. All of these media have greater reach among men than women, but what catches the attention of the feminists and other concerned people is the unrealistic, negative portrayal of women in these media. Mass media do give coverage to women and their issues but damage done by media to women is more than the help offered to them. The role of media in the development of women and enhancement of their status in the society is very depressing. All mass media are being blamed for this. Mass media have been powerful agents of social influence but they have not been effective in portraying women in meaningful, respectable and positive manner. In 1978, a major UNESCO study on the portrayal and participation of women in the media found that the portrayal of women in the mass media globally was consistently poor. The study also confirmed that there was severe under-representation of women in the upper cadres of all media organizations, and that the average media woman earns less than her male counter-parts. Studies carried out in South Asia in 1986 confirm that women are portrayed either as docile...

Words: 677 - Pages: 3

Women for Women

...This is a support group for women who are struggling to cope because of domestic violence. It is a closed group that will run for a certain amount of sessions before starting a new group. This group will consist of 4 to 12 women of any age, preferably with children, but can include any kind of circumstance. All ethnicities or religious affiliations are welcomed, in fact diversity is appreciated. We only ask that you come with an open mind and an open heart. This group will conduct several support groups to help survivors cope with the confusion, anger and fear often experienced after episodes of sexual assault and domestic violence. These groups enable survivors to share their experiences, feelings and provide others and themselves with support to overcome their fears and feelings of isolation. The purpose of this group is to find a commonality among all members and gain a sense of empowerment and unification through discussions and self disclosure. These sessions will be held at the Poudre Valley Hospital on the basement floor in room 111 from 5 to 6 pm. It will be available every second and fourth Tuesday of each month, two sessions per month, for 6 months. A facilitator, Charli Zafarana, will be the leader of the sessions and will also be available outside of sessions. Charli will provide her contact information after the first session. Through the 12 sessions we will discuss and share personal stories, barriers and obstacles, current struggles, how to find......

Words: 367 - Pages: 2


...have greater of fewer mixes of religion. Changes are inevitable. One of the most influential changes witnessed by the Arab world is the change in role of women. There was a time in the past when the women were suppressed and treated like a different species. They were confined to their homes, especially the walls of the kitchen. Later on, waves of feminism were seen in workplaces and outside. The percentage of women in workforce has quadrupled in 4 decades. The number of Arab women attending schools and universities have increased from 13% to 70% in 3 decades. The tremendous economic development over time has had an enormous impact on women. In UAE, the discovery of oil has contributed in women's role in workplace. We find Arab women not only behind the curtains of their houses but also as entrepreneurs, designers, in the field of science, IT, commerce, media, cinema, law and even in the army. Improved health care, education, jobs, facilities have made Arab women independent and self confident. Interlaq project in UAE encourages women to take up jobs in government departments. Most of the Arab nations have recognized and appreciated women although there are places even now where they do not enjoy full freedom. Even in leadership , women are at par with men. The Arab parliaments approved constitutional amendments to give women full potential rights, starting from Syria in 1949, Lebanon in 1952 to Kuwait in 2005 and Saudi Arabia in 2015. Massouma al-Mubarak was the first......

Words: 338 - Pages: 2

Franco and Fascist Spain

...America today is where it is most strikingly accurate – Islamo-Fascism, a term that describes the enemies we, Western civilization, Israel, Spain, Denmark and democracies from India to Australia and even moderate Arab/Muslim states such as Turkey, Algeria, Tunisia and Lebanon currently face. China and Russia face this same threat as well but prefer to ignore it and pretend that it is only directed against Israel or the Western and capitalist societies.  During the latter part of General Franco’s long 35-year rule, more and more speculation revolved around the question of who or exactly what type of regime would succeed him. Unlike Hitler and Mussolini, Franco survived World War II as well as the isolation of his country by the Allies, who at first considered him a remnant of the Fascist states aligned with the Axis powers. Franco, however, was a military man whose career in the army and arch-conservative views propelled him to lead the uprising against the Republic, but he did not establish a political party nor did he express open support for any of the various Catholic, conservative, monarchist and fascist parties who rallied to his cause. In order to understand both what happened during and after the Spanish Civil War, it is necessary to distinguish between the coalition of forces that supported both sides in the conflict. Franco’s supporters were divided between those who hoped for a return to the monarchy, rival wings of the Bourbon dynasty, moderates,......

Words: 3129 - Pages: 13


...In India, today, women appear to rule the roost. India as a nation is revered in a feminine form i.e. ‘the Bharat Mata’, the first citizen of our country presently is a woman, many important government posts are occupied by women and educated women are pouring into the professional workforce with profound implications for national and multinational corporations. However, ironically, these are accompanied by news about dowry killings, female infanticide, domestic violence against women, sexual harassment, rape, illegal trafficking and prostitution and myriad others of the same ilk. Gender discrimination prevails in almost all areas, be it social, cultural, economic or educational. An effective remedy for these evils needs to be sought in order to ensure the Right to Equality guaranteed by the Constitution of India, to the fairer sex. Gender equality facilitates the empowerment of women. Since education begins at home, the upliftment of women would be accompanied by the development of the family, the society and in turn, would lead towards a holistic development of the nation.Among these problems the foremost that needs to be addressed is the atrocity committed against females at birth and during childhood. Female infanticide i.e. killing of the female child is still a common practice in many of the rural areas. Further female foeticide is common in some parts of India, despite the passage of ‘Prenatal Diagnostic techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act in 1994. In case......

Words: 833 - Pages: 4


...“During the twentieth century, poor women in the Caribbean were pulled into a predictable, gendered, labor pattern operating at investment sites in the region. In this pattern poor men leave home to find temporary, labor-intensive employment in the initial phases of economic development. Women follow later to take up more permanent service employment as maids, domestics, and cleaners” (Almer, 99). The significance of the quote is its showing the emergence of a labor model that has shaped the Caribbean for generations. In the beginning of the twentieth century poor eastern Caribbean women followed male migrant workers to various places such as: the Panama Canal, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Trinidad, Curacao, and Aruba in order to provide for their families. Eastern Caribbean women have developed their own family model, which include non-marital relationships and freedom to travel for work. According to eastern Caribbean social norms poor women are expected to have children and support them financially. This results in women leaving their children with extended family and supporting them by working in distant places (99). During the Pre-1960s women migrant workers found employment as seamstresses, cooks, laundresses, and maids at labor camps located in the Panama Canal Zone, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic (100). When employment on these islands decreased, women followed the labor migrant pattern again by traveling to Trinidad, Curacao and Aruba to perform domestic work......

Words: 490 - Pages: 2


...Women Weight Loss Promotion Transitioning between the different trends is like a new driver trying to learn how to drive a stick shift. In the United States women have a fear of not looking their best or in style. As a result women turn to magazines to keep themselves updated on the latest fashion. Throughout America having a fit and slim body has been a popular trend. Magazines advertise dietary supplements and workouts to help encourage women to look thinner and get in better shape. Magazines pull women in when women see weight loss supplements that are said to work. Women who are trying to achieve the body that is in style might pay more attention to an ad in the magazine other than women who are already meeting societies’ standards. Magazines show pictures of smaller women in their ads to help encourage larger women to get their bodies like the women in the magazine ads.The women in the ads are extremely pretty, trying to make other women jealous. The picture is also placed on the right side of the ad, that way when someone were to turn the page, the picture of the girl would be the first thing someone would see. That was to draw the attention to the girl of the ad. According to Andrew Mitchell, a professor of marketing at the University of Toronto, says, “Most advertisements contain visual elements, and many advertisements provide little product attribute information. The latter advertisements seem to be designed to either trigger an emotional reaction or portray......

Words: 1388 - Pages: 6


...WOMEN Women in the UAE have been encouraged and empowered since the foundation of the state. This policy is spearheaded by the country's leadership and backed by the UAE Constitution, which guarantees equal rights for men and women in accordance with the precepts of Islam. As a result, the role of women in society has evolved considerably over the years. Today, the economic and social benefits of diversity are universally recognised and embraced and women are viewed as partners in achieving sustainable development. In the twenty-first century, Emirati women are well represented in all echelons of society, including the political arena, diplomatic corps, judiciary and the commercial sector. Four women hold ministerial position in the Cabinet and women form 17.5 per cent of the UAE's partially elected representative body, the Federal National Council. Three of the UAE's ambassadors, one consul general and the UAE's representative to the United Nations in New York are women. Four women have been appointed as judges, two as public prosecutors and 17 as assistant public prosecutors and marriage officials. Women also serve in the armed forces, customs and police. Prestigious government entities, such as twofour54 media free zone, Tecom Business Park and Jebel Ali Free Zone Authority, are headed by women. In fact, women constitute 66 per cent of the public sector workforce (the average globally is 48 per cent), with 30 per cent in senior and decision-making positions, close to the...

Words: 2197 - Pages: 9

Franco Modigliani

...Franco Modigliani Paper assignment Franko Modigliani was born in 1918 in Rome. He spent his childhood in Italy and finished Rome University with the degree of Doctor of Laws, in the same year he left Italy because of his Jewish origins and Antifascistic views. Firstly, he moved to France with his wives family and then moved to USA. He was an instructor of economics and statistics At Columbia University and Bard College from 1942 to 1944. In 1944 he also got degree of Doctor of social sciences at New School for Social Research. He defended his thesis for Doctor degree on the topic of “Liquidity Preference and the Theory of Interest and Money”, and was teaching there for a three years. This work was the first publication of Modigliani in English and, in his opinion, it was one of his main achievements. In 1946, he became a naturalized citizen of United states of America. After 1948 he joined University of Illinois, then Carnegie University (1950-1960), and North-Eastern University (1960-1962) afterwards. Since 1962, as a professor of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he continued he continued his researches in the field of Macroeconomics that he started before, especially Theory of Cash cylces. During these years, he begins study international financial and billing systems, consequences and methods of fighting with inflation, stabilization policy in open economies. Most widely known works of Modigliani was his works in various areas of finance. 1) Personal......

Words: 2644 - Pages: 11

Women on

...war 500,000 people had joined up and by 1916 this had grown to a massive 2.5 million. Before the war, many women had been fighting to get the vote. These women were called Suffragettes. When the war broke out; women had to pull together to support the war effort. Their hard work led to women over 30 getting the vote In 1918. Before the outbreak of war in August 1914, women held very traditional roles in family life. Working class women were still tied to home or continued to work for very low wages in factories, on farms or as domestic servants. The expansion of women’s education allowed some women to enter careers that were deemed suitable, such as teaching, nursing and office work. Mobilisation of industry was a key factor during the First World War. The side which produced the greater amount of munitions (guns, tanks etc.) stood a better chance of victory. The government extended its power over the economy. There was a huge shortage of workers. Industry and agriculture demanded men but so did the army. The labour shortage needed to be dealt with and women were seen as the perfect people to fill this gap. Although many working class women were already in employment, they mainly held traditional female roles in domestic service or in textile factories and mills. During the war, more opportunities opened up to women and the types of jobs they undertook changed. Women began to make war products such as guns and ammunition, taking on jobs operating heavy machinery and......

Words: 1886 - Pages: 8


...The idea of the Great Mother is present in several creation stories. In India, Mata Devi squeezed milk from her "ample breasts" to feed all of mankind. In Assyria and Polynesia, the Great Mother birthed only one egg from which all mankind originated. In Babylon, Ishtar gave birth from her "cosmic uterus" which is drawn out in the stars, where as Gaea, in Rome, emerged from the "primal vagina." And in Greece, "Mother Earth" formerly became Eleusis, who gave birth to a sheath of corn every year, associating women and fertility with crop and harvesting. Aside from the power of fertility, the goddess also had the power of death. If the Great Mother could bring man into the world, it seemed feasible enough that she could take him out. In mythologies, goddesses rounded up the dead "like a sheepdog" (Miles) Rosalind Miles, The Women's History of the World.1989. Florence Nightingale, the daughter of the wealthy landowner, William Nightingale of Embly Park, Hampshire, was born in Florence, Italy, on 12th May, 1820. Her father was a Unitarian and a a member of a reforming British political party that supported the aristocracy and later the business community, finally becoming the core of the Liberal Party who was against enslaved labor hard work, especially for low pay and under bad conditions . As a child, Florence was very close to her father, who, without a son, treated her as his friend and companion. He took responsibility for her education and taught her Greek, Latin, French,......

Words: 1418 - Pages: 6