Women Reservation

In: Social Issues

Submitted By lucy7
Words 6775
Pages 28
Policy brief series: No. 3; 2008 July

CLRA Policy Brief for Parliamentarians

Women’s Reservation
A Long Delayed and a Much Needed Step
“Achieving the goal of equal participation of women and men in decision making will provide a balance that more accurately reflects the composition of society and is needed in order to strengthen democracy and promote its proper functioning… Without the active participation of women and the incorporation of women's perspectives at all levels of decision-making, the goals of equality, development and peace cannot be achieved.”
- Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 1995: Article 181

Introduction
Women represent more than half of the world's population and just less than half of the global electorate. Nevertheless, women constitute a marginal proportion of representatives in the world's legislative bodies. In 2008, the average rate of female representation in national parliaments stands at a meagre 18 per cent. India has of yet managed notably limited success in rectifying these imbalances, with women currently holding only 8 per cent of parliamentary seats. Although India was one of the first democratic nations to grant women the vote, women are neither represented in the legislative spaces nor contributing towards the formation of national laws. After twelve years of the Women's Reservation Bill lying in limbo amid intermittent and embarrassingly hot-headed scenes in the House, it was finally introduced in the Rajya Sabha during the last day of the Budget Session, 2008. As it is a Constitutional Amendment Bill, it must now acquire a two-thirds majority to be passed in the Parliament. CLRA presents this policy brief for parliamentarians to encourage them to take action at a critical juncture for India's institutions of governance, interest groups and the male and female electorate. Once again, parliamentarians have…...

Similar Documents

Bus Reservation

...DATA STRUCTURES PROJECT ONLINE BUS RESERVATION SYSTEM BY L.SIVA SAI REDDY-10MSE1033 B.SIVA RUSHI-10MSE1063 Title of the project(aim) Online Bus Ticket Reservation System. Abstract: • The objective was two-fold - to ensure that the Customers don’t have to leave the confines of their comfort to book a ticket, and to help them get a ticket when they need it the most. • The internet was being voted as a medium people couldn’t do without. PC and net penetration was increasing not only in urban areas, but also in rural India. Also, people were getting used to booking tickets for travel using IRCTC and private airline websites. So, why not buses? • Online system provides real time quotations, real time bus booking services for round trips, multiple payment channels, cost comparison, last minute booking, an in-house call center and even home delivery of tickets Objective: • The objective was to ensure that the Customers don’t have to leave the confines of their comfort to book a ticket, and to help them get a ticket when they need it the most. • The internet was being voted as a medium people couldn’t do without. PC and net penetration was increasing not only in urban areas, but also in rural India. Also, people were getting used to booking tickets for travel using IRCTC and private airline websites. So, why not buses? • Online system provides real time quotations, real time bus booking services for...

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Hotel Reservations

...major requirement for online hotel reservation system is to provide back office forContent management, reservation management and housekeeping management. The online hotel reservation hotel system also expected to provide a better preview of the hotel rooms. These features are in order to enhance efficiency and performance and also the service to the guest. From here, it will proceed and establishing the scope, preliminary requirements and constraints, project participation and schedule. b) Requirement analysis System requirement to be defined clearly and requirementsgathering becomes more intensive. The objective of require analysis is to identify what the users would require from the software elements of the system. In requirements gathering, the fact-finding techniques will help to identify the requirements. The fact-finding techniques are: * Interviewing users realizing that people is also one of the most important element in the system project. The interview process explains about the project and objectives. * Carry out observation only for online function by browse through hotel official website. From here can find out what is in the website and how the website works. Through observation the website lacks of hotel room preview function. Besides gathering user requirement, the requirements for software and hardware are also identified. Software is chosen carefully so that they are suitable for development of online reservation system. Hardware......

Words: 1291 - Pages: 6

Life on Reservation

...of the Indian in the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. The Indians have many disadvantages over a lot of things such as demographic, health care, educations, employment, and housing. The author creates a list of information that compares between the Indians and American. The main arguments in this article are the life of the Indians are lacking in so many ways which we cannot even imagine that they are a part of United States. The evidence that supports the author’s thesis is “Many Reservation residents live without health care due to vast travel distances involved in accessing that care. Additional factors include under-funded, under-staffed medical facilities and outdated or non-existent medical equipment”. The facts state that the average life expectancy on the Reservation is 45 years old while it is 77.5 year of age life expectancy average found in the United States as a whole. Not only health care is lack, housing condition is even worse than a ghetto. Evidently, over 33% of the Reservation homes lack basic water and sewage systems as well as electricity. In a house of two or three bedrooms, the reports find out more than fifteen people is living under the same roof. Moreover, Alcoholism affects eight out of ten families on the Reservation. The death rate from alcohol-related problems on the Reservation is much higher than the remaining US population. The goal of this source is to educate readers about the life on the reservation, and how different that life......

Words: 448 - Pages: 2

Reservation

...RESERVATION ( The main function of the reservation process is to match room requests with room availability. Below is the detailed process of reservation: a) Conduct the reservation inquiry b) Determine room and rate availability c) Create the reservation record d) Confirm the reservation record e) Maintain the reservation record f) Produce reservation reports I- Reservation and Sales: ( Prior to Computerization era, the main function of the Reservation Process is only to determine Basic Room Availability. That is to say, the reservation clerk can only tell the potential guest that a room is reserved for him/her. However, the reservation clerk can not tell you the type of the room, rate honored… Nowadays, with the wide use of reservation software package programs, it is now possible to reserve a room by room type, rate, and to accommodate all the possible special requests of the guest. Therefore, the selling function shifted from the front office to the reservation department. Hence, projections of Room Revenues and Profitability Analysis became one of the basic functions of the Reservation Department. ( In parallel, reservation department and reservation agents should have sales goals to achieve which might focus on number of room nights, average room rate, and/or booked room revenue. II- Types of Reservations: 1. Guaranteed Reservation: Insures that the hotel will hold a room for the guest until a specific time following the guest’s scheduled arrival......

Words: 3306 - Pages: 14

Hotel Reservation

...INTRODUCTION Hotel reservation system plays a great role and has a potential effect on day to day performance measures, this type of system have highly evolved from decades due to high demand for their use, effective and efficiency in any given institutions. Due to the rapid change of technology the use of such system has become a necessity to any given high learning institution for better performance and be used with quite a large number of users at the same time but it can save time, resources and creates awareness of the evolving technology. 1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT Although technology is rapidly changing almost at the speed of light, some Hotels are still using manual reservation system to check in/out customers, Hotel facilities , management, share ideas and passing of information, for instance Staff performance assessment, customers roomt are done manually hence providing: * Providing untimely assessment information’s. * Consumes a lot of time, * Waste and use lots of resource such as forms. The sub-objective are to identify the requirement and design the Hotel reservation system that will resolve the above problem of manual reservation system, by designing and implementing the proposed system successfully it will benefit many parties; firstly by providing staff with access of easy view form. 1.2. SYSTEM GOAL AND OBJECTIVE 1.3. GOALS The main goal is to develop a Hotel reservation system to replace the paper based Hotel reservation. 1.4. OBJECTIVES: * To......

Words: 278 - Pages: 2

Women

...In India, today, women appear to rule the roost. India as a nation is revered in a feminine form i.e. ‘the Bharat Mata’, the first citizen of our country presently is a woman, many important government posts are occupied by women and educated women are pouring into the professional workforce with profound implications for national and multinational corporations. However, ironically, these are accompanied by news about dowry killings, female infanticide, domestic violence against women, sexual harassment, rape, illegal trafficking and prostitution and myriad others of the same ilk. Gender discrimination prevails in almost all areas, be it social, cultural, economic or educational. An effective remedy for these evils needs to be sought in order to ensure the Right to Equality guaranteed by the Constitution of India, to the fairer sex. Gender equality facilitates the empowerment of women. Since education begins at home, the upliftment of women would be accompanied by the development of the family, the society and in turn, would lead towards a holistic development of the nation.Among these problems the foremost that needs to be addressed is the atrocity committed against females at birth and during childhood. Female infanticide i.e. killing of the female child is still a common practice in many of the rural areas. Further female foeticide is common in some parts of India, despite the passage of ‘Prenatal Diagnostic techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act in 1994. In case......

Words: 833 - Pages: 4

Women Reservation Bill

...Women’s Reservation (108th Constitutional Amendment) Bill DR. RAKESH K SINGH· “Reservation for women is needed to compensate for the social barriers that have prevented women from participating in politics and thus making their voices heard. It is of the opinion that this Bill is a crucial affirmative step in the right direction of enhancing the participation of women in the State legislatures and Parliament and increasing the role of women in democratization of the country”. Parliamentary Standing Committee Report on the Constitutional (108th Amendment) Bill “Achieving the goal of equal participation of women and men in decision making will provide a balance that more accurately reflects the composition of society and is needed in order to strengthen democracy and promote its proper functioning. Without the active participation of women and the incorporation of women’s perspectives at all levels of decision-making, the goals of equality, development and peace cannot be achieved.” Fourth World Conference on Women. Beijing, 1995: Article 181 Introduction The passage of the Women's Reservation Bill in the Rajya Sabha on March 9, 2010 is a momentous, heartwarming step not only for India, but is likely to be an inspirational trendsetter for women’s empowerment in the entire region. Although it is only the first step, the ripples from the smashing of a glass barrier are bound to be felt in virtually all areas of traditional male dominance. Like its democracy, therefore, India......

Words: 4729 - Pages: 19

Reservation

...Amit Pati PGDM 20160009 Individual Report Of Reservation Reservtion in India is a form of affirmative action designed to improve the well-being of backward and under-represented communities defined primary by their ‘caste’ (quota-system based on ‘gender’ or ‘religion’). These are laws wherein the certain percentage of total available vacancies in educational institute or government jobs are set aside for people from backward communities and others like SC, ST, OBC are the primery beneficiaries of the reservation policy under the constitution. Reservations per say has really failed to deliver the intended objective. Which is to uplift the down trodden and reduce the huge gap between the forward and the backward class . In the almost 60 years of its existence it has kind of consolidated a deep rooted belief amongst the scheduled caste that it is their right to get quotas and freebies and they need not have to make efforts to acquire skills to be competitive .There is quota in education and there is quota in jobs. The entire approach has been flawed .Mostly because the original well intentioned reservation policy thought out by the framers of the constitution was manipulated by later order politicians solely with the intention securing votes.None of the government machinery's has bothered to evaluate the extent to which benefits have percolated.Instead of creating more schools and educational institutions it went about reserving quotas.If the govt had provided a high class......

Words: 858 - Pages: 4

Reservation System

...603 Information System in Business Case 1: Saskatchewan Provincial Park Campsite Management and Reservation System Sijian Chen 0 Table of Contents I. II. III. Executive Summary Key Issues Analysis  Quali t at ive Anal ysi s  Quantit ati ve Anal ys i s Pg. 2 P g. 3 P g. 5 P g. 6 P g. 5 Pg. 12 Pg. 15 Pg. 16 Pg. 17 IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. Alternatives and recommendations Implementation Plan Contingency Plan Conclusion References 1 I. Executive Summary Launched in 1997, Saskatchewan Park Services stepped into a digital transformation. The campsite reservation system changed from carbon-copy forms to a data based information system. The park firstly applied was Reservation Operating System (ROS). However, problems of park reservation system emerged constantly. Measures had been taken during 2007 to 2010 to improve the system. Nevertheless, some serious issues are still remained, and need to be resolved urgently, and find out a permanent solution to improve the overall operational process. In 2010, Saskatchewan Provincial Park renewed the reservation system, and applied Online Reservation Administration System (ORAS). However, the system crashed on January 1st, the same day it went live. Saskatchewan Provincial Park reservation system is currently facing the following problems: 1) the problem of the reservation software, and the problem of centralized process operation; 2) the problem of intensive-labor, and employees are lacking in......

Words: 3724 - Pages: 15

Alcohol and the Apache Reservation

...the Apache Reservation Frank A. Parkinson Grand Canyon University RN-BSN Alcohol and the Apache Reservation The Apache Indian Reservation is a place I am very familiar with. As a registered nurse I have worked and served the people of this area for nearly three years now. I also grew up in the area surrounding the reservation so I have first hand knowledge of the health status of this community. These people are part of the American Indian or Alaska Native group and I will be using the data from these groups as well as direct data from the White Mountain Apache Tribe to compare the health of these people against that of the national average. The primary focus on this essay with is that of the disease of Alcoholism that plagues these people. The tribe is extremely impoverished and well below averages on education. Department of Labor statistics indicated that Navajo and Apache Counties were the sixth and seventh poorest counties in the nation. With a median per capita income less than 50 percent of that of the State of Arizona, 40 percent of the residents of these two counties were living below the poverty line. Unemployment on the reservation peaked at 61 percent during this time—ten times the state average and many times the national rate. With a median per capita income less than 50 percent of that of the State of Arizona, 40 percent of the residents of these two counties were living below the poverty line. Unemployment on the reservation peaked at......

Words: 844 - Pages: 4

Room Reservation

...conduct meetings, celebrate cocktail parties, weddings and many more other functions at hotel. Employee is the key role of the hotel. They have assign to keep room records, reservation details, clean rooms wedding halls; control the inventory of hotel and many more other responsibilities. Currently Gayana hotel is using a manual system to handle hotel processes. When a guest make a reservation, all the reservation details (including guest details) are recorded in a file and those files are stored in a special cabinet. Calculations of bills and inventory items are done by manually too. As the current system is a file based one, management of the hotel has to put much effort on securing those files. They can be easily get damaged by a fire, insects or even by a natural disaster like tsunami. Keeping files takes much time and wastes much precious man hours. Although we can’t trust the accuracy of calculations done by manually, it’s not a surprise of encountering problems. If we want to check for a previous room record or a reservation detail, management will be in a great problem. It’s a tough and time taking process to search for a record in a file. The Hotel Management System we are going to implement will be covering all the basic processes done in the Hotel. It would handle Guest details, Reservation details, Inventory management details, Room service details, staff management details and room types. All the above mentioned details and information are stored in the......

Words: 4582 - Pages: 19

Quantum of Reservations

...Constitution by way of amendment and wasn’t a clause which was present in the Constitution, since it came into being. This amendment gave the executive powers to make any special provisions for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes. This provision was considered necessary by the legislature as India gained independence and a democratic form of Government came into being, the need to uplift the down-trodden was felt. Reservation were to be implemented initially for only 10 years but have being continuing till now. Over the years the extent to which reservations should be allowed has been a matter of great controversy and has been discussed in various cases. The present condition is that reservations in general should not exceed 50%. But this was not always the position. Since Article 15(4) permits discrimination in reverse by reserving seats in educational institutions, the extent of such reservation assumes great importance for the citizen, for the public generally and for the State. An instructive illustration of such appointments to unreserved and reserved posts is furnished by the facts of T. Devadasan v. Union of India and Anr. Out of 45 appointments to be made, 16 were made from unreserved seats and 29 from candidates belonging to the Schedule Castes and Tribes. The petitioner complained that although he had obtained 61 per cent marks in the competitive examination, he was not......

Words: 1443 - Pages: 6

Marketing and Reservation

...Marketing and Reservation Report Evaluation of the main marketing tools available to tour operators The use of brochures and printed material is one of the most effective and widely used means of marketing tourism operations and establishments. A great deal of planning goes into brochures, and as a result, their credibility is often far higher than a value based statement on a website. In general, brochures are replaced and revised on an annual basis and attempt to provide as much information about the establishment, tour or destination as is possible. It is key that from one year to the next this marketing does not lose its effectiveness, and as a result, companies are continually attempting to identify new unique selling points. Therefore the inclusion of information on a company’s involvement in pro-poor tourism initiatives can make a vital contribution to the overall message and effectiveness of a brochure. Brochures are designed to stimulate customers and motivate them to buy. They identify needs, demonstrate in pictures and words the image and positioning of products and organizations, and carry the key messages. In this role they act in the same way as advertising. Brochures give a detailed overview of the products and services that I want to offer and they should be designed in an attractive, easy-to-read format. Brochure Advantages Flexibility Brochures offer a range of ideas in terms of designs and decorations. You can place pictures on different folds on a...

Words: 1490 - Pages: 6

Hotel Reservation

...Jerry Gonzaga the proponent came down with a result that their manual reservation and billing system had flaws and prone to a lot of errors that a computerized transaction processing system could eliminate, This would potentially increase the businesses efficiency in that matter. Advertisement is one more factor that the developers would like to focus on to, nowadays all advertisement from top businesses are coming from the internet due to the fact that most people today are always connected to the internet via their smart phones and computers. The developers will create a website that will have an online reservation feature and virtual tour to encourage more potential customer to help the growth of the business. Preface (REWRITE) Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Today, almost all people have access to computers and are always connected to the internet. With today’s higher form of technology people are now capable of creating advance ways to improve our society. One way is developing computer based system that copes with day to day transactions. Computer based transaction processing system (TPS) is a software application that developers produce to tackle calculations of a certain transaction process of a company. These vary to a lot of elements that involves important data that needed to produce accurate results and promises security of the data. A computerized hotel reservation system or central reservation system (CRS) is a computer based software application that......

Words: 4054 - Pages: 17

Bus Reservation

...DATA STRUCTURES PROJECT ONLINE BUS RESERVATION SYSTEM BY L.SIVA SAI REDDY-10MSE1033 B.SIVA RUSHI-10MSE1063 Title of the project(aim) Online Bus Ticket Reservation System. Abstract: • The objective was two-fold - to ensure that the Customers don’t have to leave the confines of their comfort to book a ticket, and to help them get a ticket when they need it the most. • The internet was being voted as a medium people couldn’t do without. PC and net penetration was increasing not only in urban areas, but also in rural India. Also, people were getting used to booking tickets for travel using IRCTC and private airline websites. So, why not buses? • Online system provides real time quotations, real time bus booking services for round trips, multiple payment channels, cost comparison, last minute booking, an in-house call center and even home delivery of tickets Objective: • The objective was to ensure that the Customers don’t have to leave the confines of their comfort to book a ticket, and to help them get a ticket when they need it the most. • The internet was being voted as a medium people couldn’t do without. PC and net penetration was increasing not only in urban areas, but also in rural India. Also, people were getting used to booking tickets for travel using IRCTC and private airline websites. So, why not buses? • Online system provides real time quotations, real time bus booking services for......

Words: 969 - Pages: 4