Zoonotic Disease

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BUBONIC PLAGUE OR BLACK DEATH

a) Causative agent: Yersinia pestis- the type of bacteria that causes plague
b) Risk factor . The risk is very low. Only a few thousand people are getting exposed to plague. Most common in rural areas and in urban areas characterized by overcrowding, poor sanitation and a high rat population. Veterinarians and their assistants have a higher risk of coming into contact with domestic cats that may have become infected with plague. Camping, hunting or hiking in areas where plague-infected animals reside can increase your risk of being bitten by an infected flea.
c) Geographic distribution: The bubonic plague is present in South America and the Western part of North America and in large area of Asia. The greatest number of human plague infections occurs in Africa.
d) Symptoms: Wild rodents become infected but usually do not show clinical signs under normal conditions. The signs in animals are fever, pneumonia, and swollen lymph nodes. In humans, bubonic plague affects the lymp nodes. The humans will develops flu like symptoms after 3-7 days of exposure. The flu like symptoms would be muscle aches, headache, fever and chills.

e) Method of Transmission: Flea bite. Wild rodents, rabbits, and mammals serve as the hosts to the fleas. During the plague outbreak many animals die and their hungry fleas seek out the blood to survive.It can also occur through direct contact with infected tissue of bodily fluids, by handling rodents, rabbits or wild carnivores that prey on these animals.
g) Method of control-prevention: The first method of control is to avoid contact with fleas. Educate the public in these areas also preventing access to food and shelter by rodents through appropriate storage and disposal of food. We should also educate the public the importance of avoiding the flea bites by using repellents and also warn people…...

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